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2 Causes of Variation
Causes of variation
• Two main factors:
1. Genetic factors
2. Environmental factors
1. Genetic factors
• Influenced by crossing-over,
independent assortment, mutation and
random fertilisation
Crossing over, independent assortment and fertilisation.
Genetic variation caused
by mutation
• Mutation – sudden permanent change in the
nucleotide sequence of the DNA or in the
amount of DNA.
• Two types:
1. Gene mutation
2. Chromosome mutation
• Mutation can cause by:
1. Chemical or physical agents (mutagens)
2. Mistakes that occur during DNA replication
3. Uneven distribution of the chromosomes during
cell division
2. Environmental factors
• Caused by surrounding condition such as:
• The effect depends on how much condition
received by an organism during growth
• E.g.
- Chinese primrose (Primula sinensis) will
produce white flower when grow in a
warm temperature and will produce red
flower when grow in cool temperature.
• Environmentally induced cannot be
passed to offspring but genetic variation
can be inherited
• Some variation in characteristics results
from interaction between genetic and
environmental factors
• E.g. the action of sunlight on genes for
lighted-coloured skin may result in
darker skin
What are the importance
of variation in the survival
of a species?
• Provides the necessary adaptations
for the species to compete and
• Essential for survival of the species.
Do Checkpoint 6.2 on page 202 in
the textbook