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BY: ANANYA,MANASA AND JYOTHI

INTRODUCTION TO SWARM ROBOTS:


SWARM ROBOTICS IS A VERY PARTICULAR AND PECULIAR SUB-AREA OF COLLECTIVE ROBOTS. SUCCESSFUL COMMMUNICATION AMONG THE ROBOTS IS AN INTERESTING SUBJECT HERE. THE MAJOR PARTSOF A ROBOT ARE: MECHANICAL PARTS SENSORS

BASIC ARCHITECTURE OF SWARM ROBOTS:


Mechanical parts Communication system

Software(embedded systems)

Sensors

Microcontroller

MECHANICAL PARTS
GEARED MOTORS:

WORKING OF MOTOR:

DRIVER BOARDS:

DRIVER BOARD:

WORKING OF DRIVER BOARD:


Description. The circuit given here is of a simple H bridge motor driver circuit using easily available components. H Bridge is a very effective method for driving motors and it finds a lot of applications in many electronic projects especially in robotics. The circuit shown here is a typical four transistor H Bridge. The diodes D1 to D4 provide a safer path for the back emf from the motor to dissipate and thus it protects the corresponding bipolar transistors from damage. Resistors R1 to R4 limit the base current of the corresponding transistors. Working of this circuit is very easy to understand. When terminal D is grounded and A is pulled to +Vcc, transistors Q1 and Q4 will be on and current passes through the motor from left to right. When terminal B is grounded and C is pulled to +Vcc, transistors Q3 and Q2 will be on and current passes through the motor from right to right making the motor to rotate in the opposite direction.

H-BRIDGE

WORKING OF DRIVER BOARD:

L293D IC
L293D IC generally comes as a standard 16-pin DIP (dual-in line package) .This motor driver IC can simultaneously control two small motors in either direction; forward and reverse . Some of the features (and drawbacks) of this IC are:

output current capability is limited to 600mA .


This means you cannot drive bigger motors with this IC.

Supply voltage can be as large as 36 Volts.


This means you do not worry about voltage regulation.

NOTE:
A DC brush type motor is used here. Do not use a motor that draws more than 600mA of current. +Vcc can be anything between 3 to 15V DC depending on the voltage rating of the motor used. Do not connect terminal D to ground and C to +Vcc same time, it will result in short circuit. Do not connect terminal B to ground and C to +Vcc same time, it will also result in short. Resistors R1 to R4 limit the base current of the corresponding transistors. By altering their value, you can alter the motor current.

SENSORS:

MAJOR APLICATIONS

Motion detection

Distance

Presence of object

HOW IR WORKS
Background Basics

HOW IR WORKS
Two parts to the sensor:

TRANSMITTER

RECEIVER

HOW IR WORKS
Transmitter:

sends out a wave at a certain frequency

Most of the time this is a LED type of component since light is part of the heat wave of infrared

HOW IR WORKS
Receiver :

The receiver is designed to pick up a reflected wave, or to sense a change in the area.

Like this motion detector

LIMITATIONS
How ever they are best for use in the air. They will not sense through solid objects like a wall or the ocean.

When used for motion detection they wont sense objects that dont emit infrared waves or produce heat.
When used for object detection typically they have a myopic view or tunnel vision.

It is to provide different voltages It has three ports of 9_12v, ground , 5volts and LEDs, resistors , buzzer.

Maximum allowable values; Input Voltage- 7 to 15 volts Output Current- 1.5 Amperes Temperature - 125 degrees This monolithic integrated circuit is an adjustable 3-terminal positive-voltage regulator designed to supply about 1.5 A of load current

PIN DIAGRAM:

Differences from a typical computer:


A variety of interfaces
enable the system to measure, manipulate, and

interact with the external environment human interface may be as simple as a flashing light or as complicated as real-time robotic vision

Use of a diagnostic port for diagnosing the system Use of special purpose hardware to increase performance or safety Fixed-function or application-specific software

Summary
An embedded system is a product that has one or more computers embedded within it, which exercise primarily a control function. The embedded computer is usually a microcontroller: a microprocessor adapted for embedded control applications. Microcontrollers are designed according to accepted electronic and computer principles, and are fundamentally made up of microprocessor core, memory and peripherals. Microchip offers a wide range of microcontrollers, divided into a number of different families. Each family has identical central architecture and instruction set. However, common features also appear across all their microcontrollers. The Microchip 12F508 is a good microcontroller to introduce a range of features of microcontrollers in general and of PIC microcontrollers in particular.