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Rashid Rasheed

Computer Networks
Data Communication deal with methods of data transfer. Computer Networks: is a network of Computers that are geographically distributed. Exchange of Data, information sharing, and resource sharing.

Basic Elements of Communication

A sender (Source).

A medium that carries the message.

A receiver (sink).

Data Transmission Modes


Half Duplex

Full Duplex

Data Transmission Media

Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable
-two bunches of thin copper wires enclosed by plastic insulation and twisted around each other. -1200 bps

Coaxial Cable

-groups of specially wrapped and

insulated wire lines. -consist of central copper wire surrounded by insulation, which sleeve of copper mesh, and mesh is shielded by outer thick material. -10 mbps

Data Transmission Media

Fibre Optical Cable
-made of glass, plastic, or silica. -use light signals instead electrical signals. -speed more than 100 mbps.

Wireless radio signals

-electromagnetic waves.
-speed up to 16 Giga bps


-speed up to 6 GHz

Data Transmission Services

Synchronous communication uses a clock signal
separate from the data signal- communication can only happen during the tick of the timing cycle

Asynchronous communication does not use a clock signal- rather, it employs a start and stop bit to begin and end the irregular transmission of data

Data Transmission Services

Dial-up line
-Using Modem.

Leased line

-Private or dedicated line

-special conditioned directly telephone line.

Integrated Services Digital network (ISDN)

-telephonic system providing digital telephone and

data services.

Value Added Network (VAN)

-take dedicated lines and then provide enhanced

services to users.

Broadband Services
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)
A technology that provides digital data transmission over unused frequencies on traditional telephone lines For example, ADSL (Asymmetric DSL): DL > UL

128Kbps - 4Mbps

64Kbps - 800Kbps

Need a DSL modem Splitters are needed to separate the voice and data signal

Introduction to Computer Networks

Network Topologies
The network topology defines the way in which computers, printers, and other devices are connected. A network topology describes the layout of the wire and devices as well as the paths used by data transmissions.

Introduction to Computer Networks

Bus Topology
Commonly referred to as a linear bus, all the devices on a bus topology are connected by one single cable.

Introduction to Computer Networks

Star & Tree Topology

Multiple nodes connected to a single host node. Communication only can done through host node. The star topology is the most commonly used architecture in Ethernet LANs. Larger networks use the extended star topology also called tree topology. When used with network devices that filter frames or packets, like bridges, switches, and routers, this topology significantly reduces the traffic on the wires by sending packets only to the wires of the destination host.

Introduction to Computer Networks

Ring Topology
A frame travels around the ring, stopping at each node. If a node wants to transmit data, it adds the data as well as the destination address to the frame. The frame then continues around the ring until it finds the destination node, which takes the data out of the frame.

Single ring All the devices on the network share a single cable
Dual ring The dual ring topology allows data to be sent in both directions.

Introduction to Computer Networks

Mesh (hybrid) Topology

The mesh topology connects all devices (nodes) to each other for redundancy and fault tolerance.
It is used in WANs to interconnect LANs.

Implementing the mesh topology is expensive and difficult.

Network Types LAN, WAN & MAN

Local Area Networks (LAN)
Covers relatively small areas typical a building Connect computers (Servers, PCs), printers, etc. High speed, 10-200 Mbps Usually owned by the organization

- Usually connected using Ethernet

A standard on how computers communicate over a shared media (cable)

Wide area Networks (WAN)

Operate over long distances Usually owned by a telephone company Line speeds are limited by cost and bandwidth

Network Types Cnt

MAN (Metropolitan-area Network)
-Network that share some of the characteristics of both
LAN and WAN are called MAN. -usually cover up to 50km. -interconnect LANs located in an entire city.

Introduction to Computer Networks

Applications of Networks
Resource Sharing Hardware (computing resources, disks, printers) Software (application software)
Information Sharing Easy accessibility from anywhere (files, databases) Search Capability (WWW) Communication Email Message broadcast Remote computing Distributed processing (GRID Computing)

Introduction to Computer Networks

Home Wireless Network

Hub/Switch/Router Wall Jack
Ethernet Cable DSL/Cable Modem Hub/Switch/Router

Introduction to Computer Networks

WLAN (Wireless LAN)

Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity)
A wireless technology that connects computers without cables

Access Point (AP)

A device (base station) that connects wireless devices together Usually connected to a wired-network

ESSID (Extended Service Set ID)

A name for the AP, e.g.. mobile net

The area covered by wireless access points

Introduction to Computer Networks

Network Devices
Hub A multi port repeater to enhance signal within the same LAN

Switch Like hub but with intelligent Better performance

Router Forward packets from one LAN to another