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The Quantum Mechanical

Model of the Atom


Chapter 7
Light and the Electromagnetic
Spectrum
Wave - A vibrational disturbance
which transmits energy.
Definitions
Wavelength (, Greek lambda) - The
distance between identical points on
successive waves.
Frequency (v, Greek nu) - The number
of peaks that pass a given point in a
second
frequency = cycles/sec = hertz = Hz
Speed of light, c = v - 3.00 x 10
8
m/sec
= 3.00 x 10
10
cm/sec
Sodium vapor lamps - the
yellow street lights - emit light
with = 589.2 nm. What is its
frequency?
KPBS has a frequency of 89.5
MHz (MHz = 10
6
cycles/sec).
What is the wavelength of this
radiation in meters?
Plancks Quantum Theory
Max Planck
Blackbody radiation

Intensity varies with
wavelength (red-
orange-white)
Classical physics
doesnt explain
Experiment 1
Add an elemental gas to a
cathode ray tube and get ----
- colors

Hydrogen (H
2
) purple blue
Neon (Ne) red orange
Helium (He) yellow pink
Argon (Ar) lavender
Xenon (Xe) blue
Experiment 2
Shine white light through a prism -- rainbow

A prism separates light of different
wavelength, each color represents a different
wavelength.
Sundog
caused by ice
acting as a
prism.
Experiment 3
Shine the colored light from our gas
discharge tubes through a prism get
distinct bands of color (light).
Quantization of energy
Energies in atoms
are quantized, not
continuous.

Quantized means
only certain
energies allowed.
Bohr model of the atom
Electrons orbit the nucleus like little
planets (planetary model) each with its
own energy. Electrons can move from
one energy level to another by
absorbing or releasing energy.
Energy is released as radiant energy or
light.
Quantum of energy
the smallest quantity of energy that can be
emitted (or absorbed) in the form of
electromagnetic radiation.
Energy (1 quantum) = hv
or energy = n h v
n = number of quanta of energy (must be a whole number)
h = Plancks constant = 6.626 x 10
34
J sec
v = frequency

What is the minimum energy of a
sodium lamp (with = 5.892 x 10
7

m and v = 5.09 x 10
14
/sec)?
Calculate the energy of a quantum
of blue light with wavelength = 410
nm.
Photoelectric Effect
Observation -
Electrons can be ejected from some metals
when they are exposed to light.
Is light behaving like a particle which can
bounce electrons out of atoms?

Light can behave as both a wave and a particle
and energy is quantized the same either way.
If a light with a wavelength of 200 nm
shines on sodium atoms with an
ionization energy of 496 kJ/mol, what
will be the speed of the electrons
emitted?
deBroglie
object. the of velocity by the replaced is c where
to rearranges h light whic of speed the c, is speed he electron t an for
c
h
m
mc
mc
hc
E E so
mc E and
hc
h E
deBroglie
2
2
mv
h
h
=
=
=
=
=
= = =

v
deBroglie Wavelength
mv
h
deBroglie
=
Calculate the wavelength in nanometers
associated with a 0.072 kg golf ball moving at
30 m/sec?

Quantized Energy
Energy Levels for H



where n in an integer.

2
18
Joules 10 18 . 2
E
n
n

=
Derivation of Balmer-Rydberg equation
AE = En
final
En
initial

d) (equation
J 10 18 . 2 1
10 18 . 2
c) (equation
1 1
J 10 18 . 2
b) (equation
1 1
J 10 18 . 2
a) (equation
J 10 18 . 2 J 10 18 . 2
2
18
2
18
2 2
18
2 2
18
2
18
2
18
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
= A
|
|
.
|

\
|
= A
|
|
.
|

\
|
= A
|
|
.
|

\
|


= A


final initial
final initial
initial final
initial final
n n
J E
n n
E
n n
E
n n
E
constant rydberg the R where
1 1 1
1 1
m 10 097 . 1
1
1 1
sec) / m 10 0 . 3 sec)( J 10 626 . 6 (
J 10 18 . 2 1
1 1
hc
J 10 18 . 2 1
1 1
J 10 18 . 2
hc
1 1
10 18 . 2
hc
h
positive is change energy - level energy higher a to promoted is electron an If
c) (equation
1 1
J 10 18 . 2
H
2 2
2 2
1 - 7
2 2 8 34
18
2 2
18
2 2
18
2 2
18
2 2
18
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
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.
|

\
|



=
|
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.
|

\
|

=
|
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.
|

\
|
=
|
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.
|

\
|
= = = A
|
|
.
|

\
|
= A

final initial
H
final initial
final initial
final initial
final initial
final initial
final initial
n n
R
n n
n n
n n
n n
n n
J E
n n
E

u

R

1 1
1 1 1 1
m 10 097 . 1
1
1 1
sec) / m 10 0 . 3 sec)( J 10 626 . 6 (
J 10 18 . 2 1
1 1
hc
J 10 18 . 2 1
1 1
J 10 18 . 2
hc
1 1
10 18 . 2
hc
h
negative is change energy - level energy lower a to drops electron an If
c) (equation
1 1
J 10 18 . 2
2
H
2
2 2 2 2
1 - 7
2 2 8 34
18
2 2
18
2 2
18
2 2
18
2 2
18
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
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.
|

\
|
=
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|

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=
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=
|
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.
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|


=
|
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.
|

\
|
=
|
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.
|

\
|
= = = A
|
|
.
|

\
|
= A

final initial
H
final initial
H
final initial
final initial
final initial
final initial
final initial
final initial
n n
R
n n
R
n n
n n
n n
n n
n n
J E
n n
E

u
What Next?
Light behaves like waves --- and
particles.
Particles can behave like waves.
Energy is quantized.
???????
Heisenberg Uncertainty
Principle
The first thing we would like to learn about
electrons is where they are and how they
travel.

Heisenberg Uncertainty principle says this is
impossible.

(Ax)(Amv) > h/4t (~10
34
kg m
2
/sec)

Schrodingers quantum
mechanical model of the atom
E = H

is the wave function or orbital

2
(probability function) represents the
probability of finding an electron at any
given position in an atom.
Quantum Numbers
The behavior of an electron is described
mathematically by Schrodingers wave
equation and each orbital contains as
set of three variables called quantum
numbers.

The principal quantum number
(n) --
- an integer
- determines energy level of orbital
Angular momentum quantum
number (l)--
equal to (n-1) to 0
so for n = 1, l = 0
for n = 2, l = 0, or 1
for n = 3, l = 0, 1, or 2
- determines type of subshell of an
electron
quantum number subshell type
0 s
1 p
2 d
3 f
Magnetic quantum number
(m
l
)

- equal to -l to +l in integer increments
- identifies number of orbitals within a
sublevel
describes spatial orientation orbitals
within a sublevel
Spin quantum number (m
s
)
- equal to +1/2 or 1/2

- necessary because
each orbital contains
2 electrons and each
electron needs its own
space.
s orbitals
- spherical in shape
- one spatial orientation (m
l
= 0)
- contain nodes as move to higher
quantum levels (nodes are places
probability of finding an electron goes to
zero)
- makes sense if we look at electrons as
waves, waves have nodes.


p orbitals
- dumbbell shaped
- three different spatial orientations (m
l

=1, 0, 1,)
d orbitals
- cloverleaf shaped + one dumbbell in a
doughnut
- five different spatial orientations (m
l
= 2,
1, 0, 1, 2)
f orbitals
- complex shape (8 lobes)
- seven different spatial orientations (m
l
=
3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3)