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# Chapter 2: Load, Stress and Strain

The careful text-books measure (Let all who build beware!) The load, the shock, the pressure Material can bear. So when the buckled girder Lets down the grinding span The blame of loss, or murder is laid upon the man. Not on the stuff - The Man! Rudyard Kipling, Hymn of Breaking Strain

## Establishing Critical Section

To establish the critical section and the critical loading, the designer:

1. Considers the external loads applied to a machine (e.g. an automobile). 2. Considers the external loads applied to an element within the machine (e.g. a cylindrical rolling-element bearing. 3. Located the critical section within the machine element (e.g., the inner race). 4. Determines the loading at the critical section (e.g., contact stress).

## Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 2.1

Figure 2.1 A simple crane and forces acting on it. (a) Assembly drawing; (b) free-body diagram of forces acting on the beam.

## Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Figure 2.2 Load classified as to location and method of application. (a) Normal, tensile; (b) normal, compressive; (c) shear; (d) bending; (e) torsion; (f) combined. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

## Sign Convention in Bending

Figure 2.3 Sign convention used in bending. (a) Positive moment leads to tensile stress in the positive y direction; (b) positive moment acts in a positive direction on a positive face. The sign convention shown in (b) will be used in this book. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 2.2

Figure 2.4 Lever assembly and results. (a) Lever assembly; (b) results showing (1) normal, tensile, (2) shear, (3) bending, and (40 torsion on section B of lever assembly. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Support Types

## Table 2.1 Four types of support with their corresponding reactions.

Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

## Examples 2.4 and 2.5

Figure 2.5 Ladder in contact Figure 2.6 External rim brake and forces with the house and the ground acting on it. (a) External rim brake; (b) while a painter is on the external rim brake with forces acting on each ladder. part. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 2.6

Figure 2.7 Sphere and forces acting on it. (a) Sphere supported with wires from top and spring at bottom; (b) free-body diagram of forces acting on sphere.

## Beam Support Types

Figure 2.8 Three types of beam support. (a) Simply supported; (b) cantilevered; (c) overhanging.

## Shear and Moment Diagrams

Procedure for Drawing Shear and Moment Diagrams: 1. Draw a free-body diagram, and determine all the support reactions. Resolve the forces into components acting perpendicular and parallel to the beams axis, which is assumed to be the x axis. 2. Choose a position x between the origin and the length of the beam l, thus dividing the beam into two segments. The origin is chosen at the beams left end to ensure that any x chosen will be positive. 3. Draw a free-body diagram of the two segments, and use the equilibrium equations to determine the transverse shear force V and the moment M 4. Plot the shear and moment functions versus x. Note the location of the maximum moment. Generally, it is convenient to show the shear and moment diagrams directly below the free-body diagram of the beam. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 2.7

Figure 2.9 Simply supported bar. (a) Midlength load and reactions; (b) freebody diagram for 0 < x < l/2; (c) free-body diagram l/2 x < l; (d) shear and moment diagrams. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Singularity Functions

Table 2.2 Singularity and load intensity functions with corresponding graphs and expressions.

## Using Singularity Functions

Procedure for Drawing the Shear and Moment Diagrams by Making Use of Singularity Functions: 1. Draw a free-body diagram with all the singularities acting on the beam, and determine all support reactions. Resolve the forces into components acting perpendicular and parallel to the beams axis. 2. Referring to Table 2.2, write an expression for the load intensity function q(x) that describes all the singularities acting on the beam. 3. Integrate the negative load intensity function over the beam to get the shear force. Integrate the negative shear force over the beam length to get the moment (see Section 5.2). 4. Draw shear and moment diagrams from the expressions developed.

## Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 2.8

Figure 2.10 (a) Shear and (b) moment diagrams for Example 2.8.

## Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 2.9

Figure 2.11 Simply supported beam. (a) Forces acting on beam when P1=8 kN, P2=5 kN; w0=4 kN/m, l=12 m; (b) free-body diagram showing resulting forces; (c) shear and (d) moment diagrams for Example 2.9.
Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 2.10

Figure 2.12 Figures used in Example 2.10. (a) Load assembly drawing; (b) free-body diagram.

## Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Stress Elements

Figure 2.13 Stress element showing general state of threedimensional stress with origin placed in center of element.

Figure 2.14 Stress element showing twodimensional state of stress. (a) Threedimensional view; (b) plane view.

## Stresses in Arbitrary Directions

Figure 2.15 Illustration of equivalent stress states. (a) Stress element oriented in the direction of applied stress. (b) stress element oriented in different (arbitrary) direction.

Mohrs Circle

## Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 2.12

Figure 2.18 Results from Example 2.12. (a) Mohrs circle diagram; (b) stress element for proncipal normal stress shown in xy coordinates; (c) stress element for principal shear stresses shown in xy coordinates. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

## Three Dimensional Mohrs Circle

Figure 2.19 Mohrs circle for triaxial stress state. (a) Mohrs circle representation; (b) principal stresses on two planes. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Example 2.13

Figure 2.20 Mohrs circle diagrams for Example 2.13. (a) Triaxial stress state when 1=23.43 ksi, 2 = 4.57 ksi, and 3 = 0; (b) biaxial stress state when 1=30.76 ksi, 2 = 2.76 ksi; (c) triaxial stress state when 1=30.76 ksi, 2 = 0, and 3 = -2.76 ksi. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Octahedral Stresses

Figure 2.21 Stresses acting on octahedral planes. (a) General state of stress; (b) normal stress; (c) octahedral stress.

## Strain in Cubic Elements

Figure 2.22 Normal strain of a cubic element subjected to uniform tension in the x direction. (a) Threedimensional view; (b) twodimensional (or plane) view.

Figure 2.23 Shear strain of cubic element subjected to shear stress. (a) Three-dimensional view; (b) twodimensional (or plane) view.

## Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements

Plain Strain

Figure 2.24 Graphical depiction of plane strain element. (a) Normal strain x; (b) normal strain y; (c) shear strain xy

## Figure 2.26 Expansion process used in honeycomb materials.

Figure 2.27 Glue spreader case study. (a) Machine; (b) free-body diagram; (c) shear diagram; (d) moment diagram. Hamrock Fundamentals of Machine Elements