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As the name implies,

Photo + voltaic = Photovoltaic Thus, it is a technology that converts sunlight (photo) into electricity (voltaic). PV array constitutes of a number of photovoltaic modules or panels that converts solar radiations into direct current. A small photovoltaic is capable enough to give power to single house. PV works in combination of various other devices to give power for practical usage.

Working Principle

Light Energy

Solar PV

Electrical Energy

The main principle is that conversion of light energy in form of sun rays into electrical energy in form of electrical power.

Accessories Associated with PV

The main accessories connected with photovoltaic system to supply electricity for practical use are: DC to AC Converter Racking system for modules support Wiring and connections Mounting for components Credit revenue grade meter Solar irradiant sensors, MPPT, GPS tracker Battery system and charger Energy management software

Components of Solar Photovoltaic

There are various components involved in the manufacturing of the solar photovoltaic . The list of them are as follows:
Thin sliced silicon crystals


making solar cells.

Amorphous silicon cell


degradation removal. Assembled laminate (wired solar cells) to form solar panel. Solar panels linked in parallel

to make photovoltaic module/array. Mounting system for modules assembling on ground, roof or pole. Tracker, Inverter components for GPS tracker as well as conversion of DC to AC current. Charge controller as control components. These components combine together in an organized fashion to get a solar photo voltaic.

Working of Solar Photovoltaic

Steps involved:

2. 3. 4. 5.

The sun rays falls over the PV array converted into direct current (DC) by the action of silicon cells present in panel. To convert DC to AC , DAC converter is used as an intermediate inverter. PV generation meter is used to accumulate energy units bi-directionally. Now, AC power goes to household meter for domestic uses. The power supply continues till sun rays falls on the panel.

Advantages Of Solar PVs

Solar PVs are environment friendly as these do not

produce any green house gas like CO2. It uses easily available & free source of energy that is sun. Affordable setup of generation For domestic usage, setups are easy to install on roof tops. Used in both centralized and distributed power generation. Easily expandable and transportable. Provide long and lifetime service.

Disadvantages of Solar PVs

Production limited to sunny days, but what about

night and cloudy days. Unreliable systems. Various additional accessories increases the cost of implementation. Surface area requirement is also a limiting factor. Due to diffuse nature of sunlight, makes it less efficient system. Slow process of electricity generation.

Applications of Solar PVs

The solar PVs have their use in wide range of areas like:
In water pumps that are beyond the contact of power

lines. For green house ventilations, fans operate with solar PV. In sub urban homes for electricity purpose. In power plants also , solar photo voltaic are used. Solar vehicles is one of best example of its practical usage.