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Chapter 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy

Introduction to Cell Metabolism


Glycolysis

Aerobic Cell Respiration


Anaerobic Cell Respiration

Breathing and Cell Respiration are related

O2

CO2

BREATHING

Lungs

CO2

Bloodstream

Muscle cells O carrying out


2

CELLULAR RESPIRATION
Sugar + O2 ATP + CO2 + H2O

Cellular Respiration uses oxygen and glucose to produce Carbon dioxide, water, and ATP.

Glucose

Oxygen gas

Carbon dioxide

Water

Energy

How efficient is cell respiration?

Energy released from glucose (as heat and light) 100%

Energy released from glucose banked in ATP

Gasoline energy converted to movement

About 40% Burning glucose in an experiment Burning glucose in cellular respiration Burning gasoline in an auto engine

25%

Reduction and Oxidation

OILRIG
Oxidation is losing electrons Reduction is gaining electrons
Loss of hydrogen atoms

Energy
Glucose Gain of hydrogen atoms

Glucose gives off energy as is is oxidized

Reduction and Oxidation

OILRIG
Gain or loss of electrons is often in the form of hydrogen. The hydrogen is then passed to a coenzyme such as NAD+

Reduction and Oxidation

What are some common co-enzymes? NAD+ and FAD NAD+ + 2 H NADH + H+

FAD

+ 2H

FADH2

Remember that H = 2

electrons

and

2H+

Reduction and Oxidation


These co-enzymes are very important for cell respiration because they transfer high-energy electrons to electron transport systems (ETS).

Reduction and Oxidation


As the electrons move from carrier to carrier, energy is released in small quantities.

Electron transport system (ETS)

Generation of ATP
There are two ways to generate ATP

Chemiosmosis Substrate-Level Phosphorylation

Generation of ATP
Chemiosmosis Cells use the energy released by falling electrons in the ETS to pump H+ ions across a membrane

Uses the enzyme ATP synthase.

Generation of ATP
Chemiosmosis

Generation of ATP
Substrate Level Phosphorylation Enzyme ATP can also be made by transferring phosphate groups from organic molecules to ADP
Adenosine

substrate
Adenosine

product
Figure 6.7B

Generation of ATP
Substrate Level Phosphorylation Enzyme ATP can also be made by transferring phosphate groups from organic molecules to ADP
Adenosine

substrate
Adenosine

product
Figure 6.7B

General Outline

Glucose

Glycolysis
Oxygen Aerobic
Transition Reaction Pyruvic Acid No Oxygen Anaerobic

Fermentation

Krebs Cycle ETS


36 ATP

Glycolysis
Where? The cytosol

What? Breaks down glucose to pyruvic acid

Glycolysis
Energy In: 2 ATP

Steps 1 3 A fuel molecule is energized, using ATP.

Glucose Step
1

Glucose-6-phosphate
2

Fructose-6-phosphate
3

Fructose-1,6-diphosphate

Step 4 A six-carbon intermediate splits into two three-carbon intermediates.


Step 5 A redox reaction generates NADH.

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P)
5

1,3-Diphosphoglyceric acid (2 molecules) 3-Phosphoglyceric acid (2 molecules) 2-Phosphoglyceric acid (2 molecules) 2-Phosphoglyceric acid (2 molecules)

Energy Out: 4 ATP

Steps 6 9 ATP and pyruvic acid are produced.

NET 2 ATP

Pyruvic acid (2 molecules per glucose molecule)

General Outline

Glucose

Glycolysis
Oxygen Aerobic
Transition Reaction Pyruvic Acid No Oxygen Anaerobic

Fermentation

Krebs Cycle ETS


36 ATP

General Outline of Aerobic Respiration

Glycolysis Transition Reaction Krebs Cycle

Electron Transport System

Transition Reaction
Each pyruvic acid molecule is broken down to form CO2 and a two-carbon acetyl group, which enters the Krebs cycle

Pyruvic Acid

Acetyl CoA

General Outline of Aerobic Respiration

Glycolysis Transition Reaction Krebs Cycle

Electron Transport System

Krebs Cycle
Where? In the Mitochondria

What? Uses Acetyl Co-A to generate ATP, NADH, FADH2, and CO2.

Krebs Cycle

Krebs Cycle

General Outline of Aerobic Respiration

Glycolysis

Krebs Cycle

Electron Transport System

Electron Transport System

Protein complex
Intermembrane Electron space

carrier

Inner mitochondrial membrane

Electron flow
Mitochondrial matrix

ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN


Figure 6.12

ATP SYNTHASE

Electron Transport System

Electron Transport System


For each glucose molecule that enters cellular respiration, chemiosmosis produces up to 38 ATP molecules

Overview of Aerobic Respiration

General Outline

Glucose

Glycolysis
Oxygen Aerobic
Transition Reaction Pyruvic Acid No Oxygen Anaerobic

Fermentation

Krebs Cycle ETS


36 ATP

Fermentation
Requires NADH generated by glycolysis.

Where do you suppose these reactions take place?


Yeast produce carbon dioxide and ethanol

Muscle cells produce lactic acid


Only a few ATP are produced per glucose

Fermentation