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By: Daljit Kaur

What is Organization Development (OD) ?

A process used to enhance both the effectiveness of an organization and the well-being of its members through planned interventions.

What is OD intervention ?
A set of sequenced, planned actions or events intended to help an

organization to increase its effectiveness.

Purposely disrupt the status quo; they are deliberate attempts to change an

organization or sub-unit toward a different and more effective state.

Attempt to improve the fit between the individual & organization between

the organization & its environment.

Emphasis more on collaboration, confrontation & participation

Criteria for Effective Interventions

The extent to which it fits the needs of the organization. The degree to which it is based on causal knowledge of intended outcome. The extent to which it enhances the organizations capacity to manage change.

OD Intervention Categories:
Human Process Interventions
T Groups Process Consultation Third Party Interventions Team Building Organization Confrontation Meeting Intergroup Relations

Techno-Structural Interventions

Structural Design Downsizing

Parallel Structures High-involvement Organizations

Large-group Interventions
Large-group Interventions Grid Organization Development

Total Quality Management Work design

Human Resource Management Interventions

Strategic Interventions

Goal Setting Performance Appraisal Reward Systems Career Planning and development Managing workforce diversity

Integrated Strategic Change

Trans organization development

Merger and Acquisition Integration Culture Change Self-designing organizations

Employee Wellness


STRATEGIC INTERVENTIONS Competitive & collaborative strategies
STRATEGIC ISSUES What functions, produces, services, markets How to gain competitive advantage How to relate to environment
What values will guide organizational functioning

Restructuring Organizations

Employee Involvement Work Design

TECHNOLOGY/ STRUCTURE ISSUES How to divide labour How to coordinate Departments How to produce Products or services How to design work


How to attract competent people How to set goals & reward people

How to plan & develop peoples careers

HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT INTRVENTIONS Performance Management Developing & Assisting Members

HUMAN PROCESS ISSUES How to communicate How to solve problems

How to make decisions How to interact How to lead

HUMAN PROCESS INTERVENTIONS Individual, Interpersonal and Group process Approaches Organization Process Approaches

Types Of Interventions in brief :

Human process Intervention
Coaching-This help manager and executives to clarify there goals and improve performance Training and Development-It increases organization members skill and knowledge Process consultation-it focuses on interpersonal relation and social dynamics occurring in work group Third party intervention-helps people resolve conflicts through such method as problem solving, bargaining and conciliation Team Building-help work group to become more effective in accomplishing task

Human process interventions include the three change programs Organization confrontation meeting-Helps org. member to identify problem,

set action targets and being working on problem

Intergroup relation-Is designed to improve interaction among different group

or department -Helping two groups understand the causes of there conflict and choose appropriate solution
Large-group intervention-Broad variety of stakeholder into large meeting to

clarify important values, to develop ne way of working, to articulate a new vision for organization

Techno-structural Intervention Structural design-this changes process concern the organization division of labor- how to specialize task performance Downsizing-It reduce costs and bureaucracy by decreasing the size of the organization through personnel layoffs, organization redesign Reengineering-Redesigns the organizations core work processes to create tighter linkage and coordination among the different task

- Results in faster, more responsive task performance

Human Resource Management Intervention Goal Setting- setting clear and challenging goals

Performance appraisal- assessing work related achievements, strengths and

weakness Important link between goal setting and reward system

Reward system- to improve employee satisfaction and performance
Three change method: Career planning and development Managing workforce diversity Employee stress and wellness

Strategic Intervention Integrated strategic change- describe changes makes a value added

contribution to strategic management -that business strategies and organizational system must be changed together in response to external and internal disruptions,
Mergers and acquisitions-it form new entity Alliances-this is collaborative intervention helps two org pursue set of

private and common goal

Networks-it help organization develop relationships with more org, to

perform task or solve problems that complex for single org.

Factors That Impact the Success of OD Interventions Factors relating to Change Situation: Readiness for Change Capability to Change Cultural Context Capabilities of the Change Agent (OD Consultant) Factors Related to the Target of Change I. Organizational Issues Strategic Issues Technology and Structure Issues Human Resource Issues Human Process Issues

Organizational Levels -OD interventions are aimed at different levels of the organization: individual, group, organization and trans-organization (for example different offices of the organization around the globe; or between organization and its suppliers, customers, etc.)

Some of the results one can expect from OD interventions

Feedback Awareness of Changing Socio cultural Norms Increase Interaction and Communication Confrontation Education

Increase Accountability Increased Energy and Optimism