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Life Unwired

Ram Satagopan

Wireless. What does it mean to us?


Old school of thought (Conservative)
Why Wireless? What is the big deal with it? It is bulky in my pocket and also on my bills ! Less value for money! I am comfortable with my wired systems. It aint broke, so dont fix it !

New belief (Liberal)


I hate wires. Wireless is cool !

Gives me my freedom, makes me more productive.

Ram Satagopan

Wireless. Adds value to our lives


Untethers, gets rid of messy wires, gives a sense of neatness Promotes mobility Symbolizes freedom Enhances lifestyle Offers value for money !

Ram Satagopan

Scope Selection
Wireless technologies are
Several Plethora of applications Standards and proprietary Vast and very broad customer and utility characteristics technically complex .. impact our lives greatly .. are a standard .. are popular and successful .. enhance our mobility

Let us discuss today wireless technologies that

Ram Satagopan

Scope of discussion
We will limit our scope of discussions to

Discussing those wireless technologies that are popular, that are standards that affect our personal lives, and also, those that give us/enhance our MOBILITY
Definition in context: MOBILITY The degree of freedom that we possess, that allows us at our choice, to move about while continuing to execute a task The degree of freedom that we possess, that allows us at our choice, NOT to move about, but still allowing us to execute a desired task remotely

Ram Satagopan

Popular Wireless Technologies (that affect our lives directly)


Application/Device/App Technology liance Primary Utility

Television
Radio Mobile phone

FM/AM
FM GSM, GPRS

Entertainment
Personal communication voice, data Internet, mail, multimedia

CDMA
Wireless LAN GPRS/3G/WCDMA IEEE 802.11b or WiFi Unwiring Accessory Bluetooth

Personal communication accessory


Ram Satagopan

Popular Wireless Technologies (that affect our lives directly)


Application/Device/App Technology liance Utility/Lifestyle

Mobile phone

GSM, GPRS
CDMA

Wireless LAN

GPRS/3G/WCDMA IEEE 802.11b or WiFi

Personal communication voice, data Internet, mail, multimedia

Unwiring Accessory

Bluetooth

NEXT?

NEXT?

Personal communication accessory NEXT?

Ram Satagopan

GSM
Short for Global System for Mobile Communications, one of the leading digital cellular systems. GSM uses narrow band TDMA, which allows eight simultaneous calls on the same radio frequency. Operates at frequency bands of 900 MHz, 1900 MHz (North America) and limited 800 MHz band in different places
Ram Satagopan

GSM - Applications
Voice Person to person Limited data with SMS Moderate speed data leveraging on GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) The most popular personal interactive device technology Also enabling other markets in convergence with other technologies (eg: GPS (Global Positioning System) allowing for creation of tracking applications, bluetooth for shortrange connectivity solutions)
Ram Satagopan

Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi stands for Wireless Fidelity refers to any 802.11 network802.11b, 802.11a, dualband, etc standard defined by IEEE A person with a Wi-Fi device, such as a computer, or Personal digital assistant (PDA) can connect to the Internet when in proximity of an access point The region covered by one or several access points is called a hotspot

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Ram Satagopan

Wi-Fi - Applications
Mobile computing devices, such as laptops, in LANs Internet connectivity using any of the above devices

The most popular mobile internet computing technology

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Bluetooth
Bluetooth, strangely, was named after a popular Viking a Danish king Bluetooth is an industrial specification for wireless Personal Area Networks (PANs), standard defined by Bluetooth SIG Operates in short range radio frequency (2.4 GHZ ISM band) Bluetooth provides a way to connect and exchange information between devices like Personal Digital assistants (PDAs), mobile phones, Laptops, PCs, Printers, Digital cameras and video game consoles
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Bluetooth - Applications
Wireless communication between a cell-phone and a hands free headset or car kit. Wireless networking between PCs in a confined space and where little bandwidth is required. Wireless communications with PC peripherals devices, the most common being the mouse, keyboard and printer. Synchronization applications between PC and handheld devices Replacement of traditional wired serial communications in equipments. The most popular short-range technology for personal applications today

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Ram Satagopan

Popular Wireless Technologies (that affect our lives directly)


Application/Device/App Technology liance Utility/Lifestyle

Mobile phone

GSM, GPRS
CDMA

Wireless LAN

GPRS/3G/WCDMA

IEEE 802.11b or WiFi


Unwiring Accessory Bluetooth

Personal communication voice & limited data Internet, mail, multimedia

NEXT?

NEXT?

Personal communication accessory NEXT?

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Ram Satagopan

Overview of present wireless technologies

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What next? What is in the horizon?


Wireless Sensor Networks ZIGBEE
Devices to be available at a very low cost, low energy consumption Low or very low data rates good enough (<250 kbps) for most sensor applications Ability to transfer data across larger physical distances Network to be scaleable to very large sizes (> 65000 devices per network)

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Ram Satagopan

What is ZigBee?

Standard specifications for Low (data) rate-Wireless Personal Area Network (LR-WPAN) to serve Sensor monitor and Control applications

Unlicensed ISM band operation Low power consumption Interoperability

Supports large number of sensors and controls


(Forms PANs or Personal Area Networks compared to LANs or Local Area Networks)

Very low cost


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ZIGBEE?

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ZigBee Alliance
An organization with a mission to define a complete open global standard for reliable, costeffective, low-power, wirelessly networked products addressing monitoring and control

Alliance provides upper layer stack and application profiles compliance and certification testing branding Result is a set of recognizable, interoperable solutions

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Salient features of Zigbee


Self organizing (automatic self-positioning in a network) Ad-hoc wireless communication in a mesh type network

Self Healing (automatic route discovery)

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Network Topology Ad-hoc Mesh


More than one link between devices Direct communication between devices Routed communication via an intermediate device

Advantages
Dynamic choice of best path to destination (Route Discovery) Ease of network expansion by adding Routers In case of failure, reliability ensured through alternative routes

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Self Healing
Communication from 1 to 4 via 2 If an intermediate device goes down,
all established links associated with that device are lost

2 0

A packet is delivered to destination


through the next best alternative
route

(e.g. path 1-0-4 is probably better


than path 1-5-4 or 1-3-5-4)

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Ram Satagopan

Zigbee Application space


Sensors & Controls:
Home Automation

Industrial Automation
Remote Metering Automotive Networks

Interactive Toys
Active RFID/ asset tracking Medical

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Typical Applications
Security HVAC AMR Light Control Access Control Patient Monitoring Fitness Monitoring TV VCR DVD/CD remote

ZigBee Wireless Control that simply Works

Mouse

Keyboard
Joystick

Asset mgt Process Control

Motor Control

Security HVAC Light Control Access Control Garden and Lawn Irrigation

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Zigbee in our lives: Example

Monthly energy bill (household electricity electricity) management


(Interactive Discussion)

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Ram Satagopan

Energy Management - Example


Mr.Z is an individual with typical needs and typical expense patterns as would befit an average lifestyleseeking middle-income group member

His energy expenditure as a result of his growing lifestyle sees him and his family spend upto 20% of his monthly income towards electricity bills, which surprises him only at the end of each month Mr.Z is a ROI conscious individual
Z would like a system that allows him to effectively manage and control his monthly energy consumption and consequently, the expenditure

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Ram Satagopan

Energy Management - Example


Possible Solution 1: (the manual way) 1. Analyze his energy expense patterns over a few months by taking a reading of the energy meters for the number of energy units spent 2. Deduce the electricity (current) consumption expenditure by each and every high current household appliance by trial and error 3. Set his monthly expense limit and a desired pattern of energy expenditure 4. Monitor the energy meter once every few hours, and manage turning on or off each appliance manually

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Ram Satagopan

Energy Management - Example


Possible Solution 2: (the Zigbee way) 1. Procure a low-cost Zigbee energy management system that comprises of
A Zigbee device fitted to the electricity meter (calibrated) A Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) - A Zigbee handheld device with a simple alphanumeric display and a keypad Zigbee devices hooked to the plug points of each energy consuming appliance (optional) Current consumption data from the appliances and the meter, gets communicated to the remote control unit periodically Depending on the current consumption limits, the Zigbee device on the meter to automatically control the power applied to the appliances by turning them on or off Manual overriding control provided from the RTU

2. .. and one that functions as follows


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Ram Satagopan

Energy Management - Example

Which solution would Mr.Z opt for?

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Ram Satagopan

Take-away
Wireless affecting our lives directly; details of some of the most popular wireless technologies that impacted our lives. Awareness of Zigbee the emerging short-range wireless technology standard key features of Zigbee, differentiation from other popular standards, key applications

Food for thought


How much more would Zigbee unwire our lives? Will Zigbee be the most popular technology of all those that we have seen in the past? What other benefits could Zigbee possibly bring to our lives? Cost manageability? Peace of mind? Anything else?

THANK YOU !!
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Ram Satagopan