Sie sind auf Seite 1von 13

USING THE PREPOSITIONS ON, IN, AT A CHALLENGE FOR THE TEACHERS AND STUDENTS IN KOSOVO

In order to get a clearer research, we studied prepositions in novels, namely the three above-mentioned prepositions on, in, and at.

We compared them with prepositions in the Albanian language from the selected novels in English such as:
Gulliver`sTravels by Jonathan Swift, translated into Albanian by author Halit Selfo as Udhtimet e Guliverit and; White Fang by Jack London, translated by Mikaela Minga as Dhmbi i Bardh.

In particular, this paper is an attempt to include a comparative analysis of the respective prepositions, which in Albanian in most cases appear translated with the preposition n. The occurrence will be reflected from the two above-mentioned novels, hereinafter used as G.T. and W.F. In comparison to Gulliver's Travels, in White Fang we have analyzed prepositions on, in, at denoting time relations in the sentences.

Let`s see some examples when these prepositions are translated with prepositions of accusative case: n, npr, pr, me, m, mbi; (G. T. ..and fell on my face godita faqen n tryez; ..an impression on my mind dhe m jan rrnjosur aq thell n tru; low heels in the administration thembr-

shkurtit n krye t shtetit;given at our Palace, at Belforac Dhn n


pallatin tone, n belforek; alighted at an inn zbriti n nj han); (W.Fon the instant, she wolf`s n t njejtn koh; on one such night nj nat, ndrsa;in the morning, henry was n mngjes Henrikun e zgjoi;..In the fall of the year N vjesht ditt; ..at nine o`clock n orn nnt; ..when at midday n mesdit;at first n fillim).

On, in, at translated with the preposition npr (G. T. ..on these packthreads
npr spanga; ..both in the streets npr udht e qytetit;..at the gate npr dyert), show the place where someone or something moves in different directions as well as indicating the environment and the mean (npr spanga). On, in, at translated with the preposition pr (G. Ton your account pr punn taj; and that in three minutes sa pr tri minuta;towers at ten foot distance

pr do dhjet kmb gjatsi ).

On, in, at translated with prepositions me, m (G.Ton each other me njratjetrn;on the pretense of health me yckel se ish e smur;in very gentle terms me ca fjal t bukura;at the end of my knife me majn thiks;at good price me nj mim t mire;on the 21st of April M 21 prill.). (W. F. In the old days, he would have M par do t`i ishte sulur; In the past, he had liked M par ai shikonte rehatin)

On, in, at translated with the preposition nga (G. T. on that side nga ajo an; in sea affairs nga punt e detit;at the closet window nga dritarja n dhom; at noon aty nga dreka ). (W. F In the midsummer White Fang Aty nga gjysma e vers Dhmbi I bardh; physical state that in the past had always ishte nj sjellje e pavullnetsshme, q vinte nga koha kur..).

On, in, at lack translation of the whole phrase into Albanian (U. G. ..on these occasions, when a servant had given me notice Kur m lajmronin se kish ardhur nj musafir; The Emperor holds a stick in his hands, both ends parallel to the horizont Perandori mban nj shkop n mnyr horizontale, kandidatt afrohen njri

pas tjetrit; My master would suffer only thirty people at a time to see me Q t mos
bhej rrmuj, im zot nuk fuste m tepr se tridhjet veta t m shihnin). (W. F. He straightened up in time to see a dim form Drejtoi trupin dhe pa nj hije t vagullt; In this time of mistery, White Fang, too, stole away into woods Dhe Dhmbi I bardh iku. So he started out to look for the cave and his mother, feeling at the same time an overwhelming rush Vendosi t krkonte strofullin dhe nnn, i

munduar nga ndjenja e vetmis dhe braktisjes).

The prepositional phrases with the preposition head on translated with nouns into Albanian (U. G. on your shirts kmisht; on the back shpins) . Unlike the above examples, PP with the preposition head in (in the Guards, in Nottinghamshire) were translated with nouns that take the frontal article e, i (i gards, e Notingamit). Prepositional phrases with the preposition head in appear translated with feminine nouns (W. F. in the day- ditn, in the night -natn, ditt), singular, in accusative, definite form but only the third noun (ditt) is plural; at midnight -i nats).

In Gullivers Travels, we did not calculate the above-mentioned prepositions on the following pages: 1, 81, 163 and 241 because these pages were not translated into Albanian. They appear translated into Albanian with prepositions of the following cases, adverbs of all kinds and other translations. The total number of used prepositions : on (433), in (1927), at (635).
-accusative:(n, me, m, mbi, npr, pr) -nominative:(nga, te, t) On (47.11%) On (9.93%) In (36.68%) In (7.28%) At (39.05%) At (14.01%) adverbs of place, time, manner, amount On (7.62%) In (7.70%) At (11.33%)

Translation used for analysis English prepositional phrase with the head used - in total at denoting time

Times at 502

% 100%

83 83

16.53% 100% 27.71%

with

prepositions

of 23

accusative- n

Prepositional phrase with


the head at translated -with into Albanian prepositions of 4 4.81%

nominative- nga, rreth

-with adverbs

13

15.11%

-cases when not translated 35 at all (the whole phrase is

42.16%

missing) Nouns - with expressions 3 1 3.61% 1.2%

Translation used for analysis English prepositional phrase with the head used - in total

times in 1214

% 100%

In denoting time

68
68

5.60%
100% 19.11%

Prepositional phrase with the head in translated into Albanian

with

prepositions

of 13

accusative- n (10) -m (3)

-with

prepositions

of 2

2.9%

nominative- nga -with adverbs (nesr, 23 33.82%

ndrkoh, gjat, brenda)

-cases when not translated at 25 all

36.76%

-conjuction (megjithat)
2 2.9%

- nouns (natn, ditn)

5.8%

Bibliography
Anon, The Key to English prepositions, 2 vols, Toronto, Macmillan, 1964; Bahri Beci, Gramatika e gjuhs shqipe pr t gjith, Shkodr, 2000; Bryjan G., Dictionary of Modern American Usage, Oxford Univeristy Press, 1998; David C Bennet, Spatial and Temporal uses of English Prepositions, Longman, 1975; David Thatcher, Saving our Prepositions, 2002; Eqrem Qabej, Studime Gjuhsore, vllimi VII, Rilindja, Prishtin, 1986; Frederic W., English Prepositional Idioms, London, Macmillan, 1967; Fjalor i Gjuhs s Sotme Shqipe, Rilindja, Prishtine, 1981; Illo Stefanllari, English-Albanian Dictionary of Idioms, Hippocrene boks, INC., New York, 2000; Jonathan Swift, Gulliver`s Travels, Penguin Books, London, 1994; Jack London, White Fang and the Call of the Wild, Penguin Books, London, 1994; Peter W. and Jones A., Test your Prepositions, Penguin Books, 2000; Rodney H., and Geoffrey P., The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language, Cambridge University Press, 2002; Randolph Q., A Grammar of Contemporary English, London, Longman, 1972; Randolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, G. Leech, Jan Stvartvik, A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language, Pearson Education, Harlow, England, 2003; Seth Lindstromberg, English Prepositons Explained, John Benjamin`s Publishing Co, Amsterdam, 1998;