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# AC ANALYSIS

## Time domain analysis

We are surrounded by sinusoidal
signals:
1. Household power supply (50 Hz)
3. Cellular Phones (UHF:400 to
1000 MHz)
4. Television

Less loss in transmission
Carrier waves are modulated by voice
or video signals of lower frequency
Phasors:
We will use the complex
exponential to represent currents
and voltages.
This is known as the phasor
representation.
Reason: The voltage across an
inductor (and the current through a
capacitor), involves derivatives.
If we use sinusoidal functions to
describe we have mixture of sine and
cosine terms: not easy to handle
For a resistor, the current and
voltage (across it) are in phase.
Let the current through the inductor
be given by:
t j
Ie t i
e
= ) (
The voltage across the inductor is
given by:
) ( ) ( t Li j Ie Lj
dt
di
L t v
t j
e e
e
= = =
) 2 / (
) (
t e
e
+
=
t j
LIe t v
Therefore the voltage across the
inductor leads the current by t/2.

For a capacitor, if the voltage across
the capacitor is given by:
t j
Ve t v
e
= ) (
) ( ) ( t Cv j Ve Cj
dt
dv
C t i
t j
e e
e
= = =
) 2 / (
) (
t e
e
+
=
t j
CVe t i
Therefore the current in a capacitor
These relations can be represented
by phasor diagrams.
Imaginary axis
Real axis
I
jeLI
et
Phasor diagram
for inductor
Real axis
Imaginary axis
I
V=I/jeC
et
Phasor diagram
for capacitor
For the resistor, inductor and
capacitor, we get a phasor equation
of the form:
V = Z I
Z is the impedance of the element.
For a resistor: Z
R
= R
For a capacitor: Z
C
= 1/jeC
For an inductor: Z
L
= jeL

Note that the impedance of a
capacitor decreases with increase in
frequency and that of an inductor
increases with increase in frequency.

The reciprocal of impedance is
notation is that we can avoid writing
down differential equations and
solving them.
The source supplies AC given by
V
s
= 6sin2t = 6cos(2t-90
0
)
1/jeC = -j
1 O
~
V
s
=6/-90
0

F
KVL for this circuit can be written
as:
V
s
= I jI
6/-90
0
= (1-j)I
= 2(-45
0
)I
0
0
0
45 2 3
45 2
90 6
Z =
Z
Z
= I
Voltage across capacitor = -jI
0
135 2 3 Z
Real axis
Imaginary axis
V
o
= 32/-135
0

I=32/-45
0

135
0

V
s
=6/-90
0

Once we have obtained the solution
by phasor method, we can write
down the time dependence of the
voltages and currents
V
0
= 32cos(2t-135
0
)
i(t) = 32cos(2t-45
0
)

Application of Thevenins theorem
to AC circuits:
5cos(4t-30
0
)V
5 mF

50 H

Z
L

~
200 O
V
oc

V
Applying KCL at the node labeled
V
oc
:
( )
200 50
30 5
j
V V
j
V
oc oc

=

Z
3V
oc
+V = 20 /-30
0

Applying KCL at node V:
200 200
V
j
V V
oc
=

oc
V
j
V
+
=
1
1
Substituting this in the other
equation, we have:
0
30 20
1
3 Z =
+
+
j
V
V
oc
oc
0
30 20
1
3 4
Z =
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
j
j
V
oc
0
30 20
3 4
1
Z
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
j
j
V
oc
Multiplying the numerator and
denominator by the complex
conjugate of the denominator:
0
30 20
25
7
Z
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
j
V
oc
Convert the complex number in
brackets to polar form.
0 0 0
87 . 21 2 4 30 20 13 . 8
5
2
Z = Z Z =
oc
V
Therefore:
V
oc
= 42cos(4t-21.87
0
)
To find the Thevenin equivalent
impedance, set the independent
source to zero.
Net impedance of the resistor
and the inductor is 200+200j. This is
in parallel with the capacitor.
j j
j j
Z
o
50 200 200
) 50 )( 200 200 (
+
+
=
j
j j
Z
o
3 4
) )( 200 200 (
+
+
=
j
j
j
Z
o
56 8
3 4
) 200 200 (
=
+
+
=
Z
o
= 402/-81.87
0
O
Ex. 4.6
Application of Mesh analysis and
Cramers rule to AC circuits.
9cos(5t)V
1/15 F

~
6 O
V
V
1

- +
3 O
I
1

I
2

For the mesh on the left:

0 ) ( 3 6 9
2 1 1
= + I I j I
0 3 ) ( 9
2 2 1
= + I I I j
For the mesh on the right:
-3v
1
+3I
2
=0
0 3 ) 3 1 (
1 2
= + I I j
Solve using Cramers rule
0
1
49 . 2 3 . 1
53
) 23 ( 3
Z =
+
=
j
I
0
2
6 . 15 24 . 1
53
) 2 7 ( 9
Z =

=
j
I
Power:
If a source is supplying a
sinusoidal voltage, then the average
voltage supplied by the source over
one cycle is zero.
However, the average power supplied
by the source is non-zero.
For an arbitrary element (could be
resistor/capacitor/inductor), the
power absorbed by the element is:
| | ) cos( ) cos( ) ( ) ( ) ( e e + = = t I t V t i t v t p
( ) | | e cos 2 cos
2
+ + = t
VI
}
=
T
ave
dt t p
T
P
0
) (
1
( ) | |
}
+ + =
T
ave
dt t
VI
T
P
0
cos 2 cos
2
1
e
The first integral can be shown to be
equal to zero and the second integral
is non-zero, giving
P
ave
= (VI/2 )cos|
Therefore if the element is:
A resistor: P
ave
= VI/2
an inductor: P
ave
= 0
A capacitor: P
ave
= 0
Recall that, the impedance of an
inductor or a capacitor is complex.
The real part of the impedance is
called resistance and the imaginary
part is called reactance.
Maximum Power transfer:
Given a circuit with a Thevenin
equivalent output impedance
Z
0
= R
o
+jX
o
impedance Z
L
= R
L
+jX
L
maximum transfer of power?
The condition is:
Z
L
= R
L
+jX
L
= R
o
jX
0
= Z
o
*

If Z
L
is restricted to be real (only
is:
2 2
o o L
X R R + =
Effective value of a sinusoid:
We define I
e ,
the effective value
of an ac current, as the dc current
that would yield the same power
absorption (on the average) as the ac
current.
Therefore:
2 2
2
1
RI RI
e
=
I I
e
2
1
=
V V V
e
707 . 0
2
1
= =
For household power supplies, the
usual value (220 Volts) which is
quoted is the effective value and not
the peak value of the sinusoidal
voltage.
Therefore the peak value is
220/0.707 = 311.17 V.
Why is the effective voltage in
India 220 V and 115 V in the US?
The effective value is same as the
RMS value.
The RMS or root mean squared
value of the power dissipated in a
resistor is:
}
=
T
e
dt t Ri
T
RI
0
2 2
) (
1
( )
}
=
T
e
dt t RI
T
RI
0
2 2 2
cos
1
e
2
I
I
e
=
The quantity I
e
V
e
is known as the
apparent power, but we know that
the average power is:
P
ave
= (VI/2 )cos| = V
e
I
e
cos|

We use the unit Volt-Ampere (VA) for
the apparent power to distinguish it from the
actual (average power).
u cos
power apparent
power average
factor Power = =
The angle u is known as the power
factor angle.
If power factor is negative, it
indicates that the load is capacitive
and if pf is positive it indicates an
For an inductive load, the pf is
called lagging (current lags the
voltage)
for a capacitive load, the pf is
Power factor correction:
It is desirable to have a power
factor of around 1 (no lead or lag).
If we have capacitive or
motors etc), then we can apply
power factor correction to
compensate for the lead or lag in the
capacitors or inductors as the case
may be.
1. Regulator 2. Network connection points
3. Fuses 4. Contactors 5. Capacitors
Transformer 400/230 Volts
What is power factor correction?
Ex 4.11
A large consumer of electricity
(like our campus!) requires 10 kW of
power by using 230 V rms at a pf
angle of 60
0
lagging (pf = 0.5).
The current drawn by the load
will be :
A
V
P
I
e
e
87
5 . 0 230
10000
cos
=

= =
u
But the transmission line from the
power station to the campus will
have some resistance (say 0.1 O).
Therefore the power station has to
generate
V
e
= 0.1 I
L
+ V
L
= 8.7/-60
0
+ 230 /0
0

= 234 /-1.84
0

The loss in transmission is
I
e
2
R = 757 W.
If the power factor can be corrected, the
current and hence the transmission loss
will reduce.
What is a Single Phase three-wire
circuit?