You are on page 1of 30

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY

BIO

LOGY GREEK

bios (LIFE)

logos (STUDY)

WHAT IS BIOLOGY ?
The study of life or living things Living things = organisms Tells us about the structure and function & the interaction between the organisms and enviroment.

IMPORTANT OF BIOLOGY
Diseases

Food technology

Agriculture

Biotechnology

Managing the enviroment

FIELDS OF STUDY IN BIOLOGY


ZOOLOGY BIOTECHNOLOGY MICROBIOLOGY

BOTANY BIOCHEMISTRY TAXONOMY

BIOLOGY
MEDICINE

ECOLOGY

PHYSIOLOGY

GENETICS

ANATOMY

THE STUDY OF BIOLOGY


Biological Fields
Virology Bacteriology Mycology Botany Zoology Anatomy Histology Biochemistry Genetics Ecology Microbiology Physiology

Aspects of the study


Cell Biology Genetics Environmental study Biochemicals Plants Animals Tissues Structure of organisms Microorganism Virus Bacteria Fungi

JOB OR CAREERS ??

Doctor Nurses Dentist Forensic scientist Nutritionist Biomedical scientist Pharmacists Physiotherapists

SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION

SCIENTIFIC SKILLS
Divided into 2 component: Science process skills
Critical, analytical, creative thinking. Formulate questions and find out the answers

Manipulative skills
Psychomotor skills

SCIENTIFIC SKILLS
Science Process Skills Observing Classifying Measuring and using numbers Making inferens Predicting The Manipulative Skills a. Using and handling science apparatus and substances correctly b. Keeping science apparatus and substances correctly and safely c. Cleaning science apparatus in the correct way d. Handling science specimens correctly and carefully e. Drawing specimens, science substances and science apparatus correctly.

Using space-time relationship


Interpreting data Defining operationally Controlling variables Communicating Making hypothesis Experimenting

SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS


What are the skills involved? -Observing -Controlling variables -Making hypothesis -Making prediction -Experimenting -Manipulative skills

OBSERVATION, MAKING HYPOTHESIS AND PREDICTING

SCIENTIFIC METHOD

SCIENTIFIC METHODS

Diagram shows a flow chart of a scientific method.

SCIENTIFIC METHODS

EXPERIMENTING

Preparing tissue culture of a plant

SCIENTIFIC METHODS
Identifying the problems by observing or explaining the phenomenon Identifying and controlling the variables that affect the study or the observations Formulating the hypothesis in order to predict the phenomenon observed

Writing a report

Carry out the investigation that had been planned. The following steps are suggested to follow: (a) Collecting data (b) Analyse the data (c) Interpreting the data (d) Making conclusion

Planning the investigation to test the hypothesis

SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION

MAKING HYPOTHESIS

THE VARIABLES IN A SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION


Constant or fixed variable A factor which is kept constant / fixed or controlled throughout the experiment or investigation. In an experiment to investigate the proces of respiration in animal for example, the factors (fixed variables) that are controlled are temperature and atmospheric presure. The manipulated variable It is a factor which is changed or manipulated in the experiment in order to test the hypothesis. This factor may be expected as the source or the factor under study for a certain phenomenon. The responding variable It is the factor that changes whenever the manipulated variable changes.
VARIABLES
Manipulated variable The factor which is under study and varied throughout the experiment in order to observe the corresponding changes in the responding variable. Responding variable The factor that changes in respons to the changes in the manipulated variable Constant variable All the other factors that can affect the result of the experiment , which is controlled or fixed throughout the experiment.

pH, enzyme concentration and substrate concentration is controlled or kept constant. Optimum temperature
Rate of reaction

Temperature/0C

The effect of temperature on enzyme activity

PLANNING INVESTIGATION

CONDUCTING EXPERIMENT

COLLECTING DATA

RECORDING DATA

RECORDING DATA

RECORDING DATA

WRITING A SCIENCE REPORT

Light Microscope

IDENTIFYING THE PROBLEM FORMING A HYPHOTHEIS PLANNING THE EXPERIMENT IDENTIFYING & CONTROLLING VARIABLES CONDUCTING THE EXPERIMENT

COLLECTING DATA
ANALYSING DATA INTERPRETING DATA DRAWING CONCLUSION WRITING A REPORT Pg 10

SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES AND NOBLE VALUES


1. Having an interest and curiosity in recording the environment. 2. Being honest and accurate in recording and validating data. 3. Critical and analytical thinking skills. 4. Objective and rational. 5. Responsibility and accountability 6. Being confident and independent. 7. Daring to try.
THE END