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Information Technology I Special Topics Location Based Services

P93747001 P93747003

"mergence of LBS #hat is LBS$ Basic %se &ases Location Service &oncepts 'esearch Iss(es

Privacy Interopera)ility and Standard

Technical B(siness Innovations

1*7+ 19*0 199. 1999 000 Telephone ,!Internet e/"verything m 0 1IS and LBS

The convergence of m(ltiple technologies

Internet #ireless comm(nication 1eographic information system Location technologies 2o)ile devices

"merging mo)ile comp(ting application

3ften need to 4no5 5here things are physically located6

Location services7 5ireless location services7 mo)ile location/)ased services

'elating location to other pertinent information gives meaning and val(e

#e need directions from one place to another6 #e 5ant to interact nat(rally 5ith I83 devices availa)le in o(r environment6

!llo5 that mo)ile (sers 92%s: (se services )ased in their position or geographic location

"mergence of Location Based Services

$10 Billion

Market Size

Internet and Mobile Location Services Market

$5 Billion Inflection Point $1 Billion
1980 1990 2000

GIS Market
2005 +


;o4ia prognosis for 31 mo)ile comm(nication

Monthly income pr. user in euro (1 euro = 1 USD ca.)
100 "0 !0

#ocation $ase% ser&ices Di&. telecomm. .e/t messa,es 'ommercials (ntertainment )n*ormation ser&ices +ayment transactions Music an% &i%eo )nternet sur*in, Do-nloa% *rom internet 'hat on internet Multime%ia messa,es 0i%e con*erencin,

+hoto messa,es
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 200 200! 200" 2010

1ormal speech


2i/e% su$scription *ees

"mergence of LBS #hat is LBS$ Basic %se &ases Location Service &oncepts 'esearch Iss(es

Privacy Interopera)ility and Standard

#hat is location/)ased service$

<efinition 1 =

LBSs are information services accessi)le 5ith mo)ile devices thro(gh the mo)ile net5or4 and (tili>ing the a)ility to ma4e (se of the location of the mo)ile device6 9?irranta(s et al6 001:


! 5ireless/IP service that (ses geographic information to serve a mo)ile (ser6 !ny application service that e@ploits the position of a mo)ile terminal6 93pen 1eospatial &onsorti(m 931&7 00.::

#hat is location/)ased service$

! t5o 5ay comm(nication and interaction

%ser = tells the information he needs7 preferences and position Provider = deliver information tailored to the (ser needs #here am I $ #hat is near )y $ Ao5 &an I go to $

To ans5er =

LBS as an intersection of technologies


Basic &omponents

"mergence of LBS #hat is LBS$ Basic %se &ases Location Service &oncepts 'esearch Iss(es

Privacy Interopera)ility and Standard


Basic (ses of &ases


"mergence of LBS #hat is LBS$ Basic %se &ases Location Service &oncepts 'esearch Iss(es

Privacy Interopera)ility and Standard


Location service concepts

The <evice

&ell phone Palm top Lap/top Bios4 &ar/)ased comp(ter &ell antenna 2o)ile device <isplay


Location service concepts

The Location

Point and 'eference Segmented Line !ddress 'o(te <escriptive <irections 1a>etteer <irection Polygon

Payload Items

Location service concepts

The Service
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 'o(ting !voiding Traffic To(rism 'egional !ttractions "vent Aandling 2aps and Bac4drops 1(idance Preference



B(ilding Bloc4s of Location Services

Basic Functions
Position (o)te Pro+i!it* "irector* "istrib)tion S)itabilit* Inventor* Pattern "istance Selection "escri$tion 'rea (elations%i$ Presentation ,re-)enc* rend

Location Servers

"e!o#ra$%ics "irectories Positions (o)tes Reports, Ma$s GraphicViews, Messages Sites 'ssets &vents Service Points ransactions


Location Services System &oncept

OpenLS Interface Focus Areas


Location .'$$lication/ Service 0lient 1 Positionin# S2342

Mobile er!inal Location '$$ Server Location '$$ Servers GSM

2ireless 5 IP Platfor!
Internet or Intranet
.0ore 6et7ork/

Gate7a* Services

6et7ork Mana#e!ent Mobile Positionin# Server

6et7ork Services


Location 0ontent Servers

"atabase &n#ine 0

Location Technologies

Technologies that e@ploit the cell(lar infrastr(ct(re to o)tain geo/location information6 Location intelligence is stored 5ithin terminal The 2% (ses signal transmitted )y the )ase stations to calc(late its o5n position The )ase stations meas(re the signals transmitted )y the 2% and relay them to a central site for processing6


"ach of these gro(ps may )e divided into=

Location Technologies net5or4/)ased

&1ICT! 9&ell 1lo)al Identity C Timing !dvance:

&ell Si>e

Location Technologies net5or4/)ased

%L/T3! 9%plin4 Time of !rrival:
Base Station 1
2o)ile T1Edistance 1 Edistance T 2 3 Edistance 3 T

Base Station

Base Station 3

Location Technologies net5or4/)ased

!3! 9!ngle of !rrival:

Location Technologies handset/)ased

1PS 91lo)al Positioning System: !1PS 9;et5or4 !ssisted 1PS:

Location Technologies handset/)ased

"3T< 9"nhanced 3)served Time <ifference:
<ifference 1/3

Base Station 1
&loc4 time 1

<ifference 1/


&loc4 time

Base Station 3
&loc4 time 3

Base Station

<ifference /3 +

"mergence of LBS #hat is LBS$ Basic %se &ases Location Service &oncepts 'esearch Iss(es

The complete LBS system Interopera)ility and Standard

'esearch iss(es
'eal/Time Location Information7

5here is the nearest incident investigation site$ #here is the nearest hospital7 resta(rant$

Trac4ing7 Traffic 2onitoring and 'o(ting7 Telematics7 'eal Time B(s Location Information Systems6

Spatial <ata
"ssential component of LBS architect(re

Storing and analy>ing spatial data 'efers to the comp(ter/)ased capa)ility to manip(late geographic data

1eographical Information System 91IS:

2aps or images can )e stored in vector or raster format6 ! spatial o)Fect m(st have=

Location= a 4no5n point ,orm= a geometric representation !ttri)(te= the nat(re of the o)Fect Spatial relationship= the )o(ndary of an area

The &omplete LBS System

#2L8AT2L !1PS

Service 1ate5ay

2o)ile ;et5or4


S2S7 1P'S7 #ireless Internet



LBS !pplication Server C Spatial ,(nctions

BS !PI Spatial <ata)ase !PI Billing Server


Traffic Information Services is ;3T So Simple

9Do( are a)o(t to Foin a ten 4ilometer traffic G(e(e:
&reate a planned ro(te Periodically get device location Position device on appropriate transportation net5or4 9(s(ally streets: 'o(te 2ay )e e@pressed as segmented line e@pression "@amine planned ro(te for o)stacles &omp(te 5or4/aro(nd if o)stacle is discovered Process and Present 9portray: 5or4/aro(nd 3)tain )ac4gro(nd road net5or4s 5ith street and place names 5ith scale and map (p date as device moves Aighlight planned ro(te Aighlight 5or4/aro(nd ro(te 31

2ane(ver "@amples
T(rn onto street B Bear to remain on street ! %/t(rn on street ! T(rn to stay on high5ay ! T(rn onto ramp B T(rn to enter a ro(nda)o(t= pass n roads )efore e@iting "ntering a )oat ferry T(rn to stay on street ! 9for4: Stay straight thro(gh comple@ intersection

!dvisory "@amples
!pproaching a toll )ooth "@iting a t(nnel "ntering a )ridge "ntering a ne5 co(ntry 'oad name changes 'oads 2erge !pproaching Intermediate #ayPoint !pproaching <estination #al4 To <estination

+ea45hour #in4 .ime .a$le

1on +ea45hour #in4 .ime .a$le

Destination 4330 +M 4300 +M 3330 +M 5300 +M



Forecasting Spatio-Temporal Link Travel Time


&ost ,(nctions for 'o(ting and ;avigation

,ind a ro(te from my c(rrent position7 stopping at a gas station for 10 gallons of gas7 a pharmacy to pic4 (p a )ottle of !dvil7 and a flo5er shop for a do>en roses )efore arriving home6 Three costs are involved= 91: the p(rchasing and stopping costs7 9 : costs related to the time spent on the road7 and 93: distance related costs s(ch as gasoline (sed7 and the 5ear and tear from the (se of a car6

Interopera)ility and standard

Life 5itho(t standards


Binds of standards/ ,o(r Types

By Level of &overage
International 2(ltinational7 'egional ;ational Local

By ,(nction
<esign Standards Interface Standards ,rame5or4 Standards Performance Standards Testing 2ethods Terminology

By Level of Prescriptiveness
'ecommended Practice= !dvisory Information 'eport= Informative Standard= ;ormative

By <evelopment Process
<e facto 'eg(latory &onsens(s 3*

! concept(al architect(re for LBS


Transferring geospatial <ata )et5een different h85 H s85

Geos$atial data Geos$atial data

S32 2


S32 1


Several alternative location methods (nder development

Sensor driven

"ach application has its necessary acc(racy !chieving acc(rate location in (r)an areas is challenging )eca(se of the effects of )(ildings Standardi>ation is foc(sed on time/difference methods and the (se of 1PS