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1.

1 Understanding that humans have basic needs

food

air

Basic Needs Of Human

water

shelter To protect from

1.2 Understanding that animals have basic needs

food

air

Basic Needs Of Animals

Types : Shelter To protect from

water

1.3 Understanding that plants have basic needs

Plants Have Basic Needs

air

water

Sun light

With :

Without :

2.1 Analysing life processes that humans undergo


Nose/Mouth Wind-pipe Lungs

take in air give out air

Purpose :

Number of chest movement In a period of time

Analysing Life Processes That Human Undergo Organs - Sight - Smell


A process to produce Their young or offspring

- Taste
- Sound - Touch

( Carbon dioxide + water vapour )

Faeces

( urine + mineral salt ) ( Sweat + mineral salt )

2.2 Being aware that certain behaviour can disturb life processes

Behaviour That Can Disturb Life Processes

Effects

Effects How to avoid


2.3 Analysing the life processes that animals undergo

Animals Life Processes

excrete

defecate

breath

reproduce

To get rid of waste product from their bodies

Organs

Lay Eggs

Give Birth

Monkey bird whale

fish
prawn

crab

frog
earthworm

insects

Science Year 4 INVESTIGATING LIVING THINGS 2. Living Things Undergo Life Processes plants respond to stimuli. water, sunlight, touch, gravity.
Roots

the part of plant that responds to water

various ways plants reproduce


throughseeds, spores, suckers, stem cutting, leaves, underground stem.

the part of plant that responds to gravity.

plants reproduce.
Seeds balsam, corn, durian Spores fern, mushroom Suckers banana, pineapple Stem cutting hibiscus, rose, tapioca Leaves bryophyllum, begonia Stem potato, onion, ginger and lily

2.4 Life processes plants undergo

Roots

the part of plant that responds to sunlight.


Shoot

what will happen to the world if plants do not reproduce. why plants need to reproduce
to ensure the survival of the species. no food supply.

the part of plant that responds to touch.

3.1 animals have specific characteristics and behaviour to protect themselves

Special characteristics of animals that protect them from danger.

The special characteristics and behaviour of animals help to protect them from danger.

special behaviour of animals that protect them from danger.

Thick and hard skin To prevent their enemies from injuring Hard shell Snails and tortoise retract their head And legs into the shell when the are Attacked by enemies

Sharp claws To protect themselves and their Young from the enemies- lion ,cat, Bears, and eagle. Pretend to dead To trick their enemies e.g.: beetle

Hard scales Pangolins and crocodiles have hard scales To protect their bodies from injuries
Spines Raise the sharp spines when the enemies Advance towards them Horns Use their horn to attack enemies.

Camouflage Has body colour or patterns that that are Similar to the surrounding Spray black ink Dark surrounding helps the animal not to been seen by enemies e.g: octopus, squid Poisonous sting or fangs Can hurt and kill enemies-e.g..: scorpion, centipede snake , bee.

3.2/3.3 Animals have specific characteristics and behaviour to protect themselves from extreme weather and survive

specific characteristics and behavior of animals that protect them from very hot and cold weather. Hot weather

how specific characteristics and behavior of animals help to protect them from very hot or cold weather. Cold weather
Thick Fur Polar bears have thick fur to prevent the body From losing heat to cold surroundings. Fat Layers Under The Skins Penguins, seals, and whales have fat layers under their skin to keep their bodies warm Small Ears Seals and Walruses have small ears to prevent Heat loss from their bodies. Hibernate Polar bears hibernates during extreme cold Weather

Wrinkled Skin Elephant ,hippopotamuses and buffaloes lose body heat through wrinkled skins Wallowing Elephant, hippopotamuses and buffaloes keep their body cool by wallowing in mud holes

Humps Camels store food and water in the form Of fats in the humps on their back.

3.4 Plants have specific characteristics to protect themselves from enemy

The specific characteristics

of plants that protect them from enemies

How the specific

characteristics of plants help to protect them from enemies.

Produces latex

characteristics that protect plants. Have thorns poisonous

Have fine hairs


Close leaflets when touch

3.5 Plants have specific characteristics to protect themselves from dry region and strong wind

dry region

strong wind

Eg : cactus

Eg: Coconut tree, bamboo tree, . mangrove tree

a. b. c.

Long roots to absorb water Succulent stem can store water Thorn can can prevent the excessive loss of water

a. b. c. d.

Have stems that bend easily Have buttress roots Have separated leaves Needle- shaped leaves

INVESTIGATING FORCE AND ENERGY

1.2 Area

Volume

1.3 Solid 1.4 Liquid

1.1 Length

MEASUREMENT

1.5 Mass

1.7 Standard units

1.6 Time

Terminology
- The distance between two points/place/position

Measuring tape

String

Arm span Cubit

Ways to measure
Ruler

1.1Length
Correct technique
- The eye must be directly above the end of object

Standard Tools

Measuring tape

Ruler

Unit
mm cm m km

Terminology

1.2 Area

Standard unit

- Area is the amount of


Space taken up by the surface of an object. Different ways to measure area

- Square millimetre (mm2) - Square centimetre (cm2) - Square metre (m2) - Square kilometre (km2)

- Using formula - by placing uniform objects such as tiles, books and stamps on the surface of the objects

- Using square card with a


sides of 1 centimetre

2cm 4cm

3cm 1cm 3cm 1cm

Area = length X width


= 4cm X 2 cm = 8cm2

The amount of space that something takes up

measuring cylinder

Terminology Length x width x height Tools

Formula

Volume

1.4 Liquid Standard Units

1.3 Solid
Correct technique Standard Units mm3, cm3, m3 a) taking the reading at the lowest part of the meniscus. b) eyes must be at the same level as the lowest part of the meniscus ml, l

Terminology
- Amount of matter in an object

Correct technique

1.5 Mass
Electronic balance Simple balance

Tools

Bathroom scale

Standard unit

Beam balance

Kitchen scale

Lever balance

mg

kg

Terminology

Standard unit

1.6 Time
- Duration between two event - Second , minute , hour

Way to measure Tool


Process that repeats uniformly can be used to measure time

- Digital clock , watch , wrist watch , clock

Events can be used measuring time Old clock -Swinging pendulum -Pulse rate candle - Sundial , sand clock , candle clock -water dripping -Changing day and night

1.7 The Importance of Standard Units

- for accuracy and consistency

- easy to communicate and understanding

Investigating Materials

metal

carbon

glass

plastics

wood

Conduct electricity

Light to pass through

Insulator

1.1 The properties of materials

Float on water

Sink in water

Can be stretch

conduct heat

wood

stone

rubber ring

metal

1.2 Applying knowledge properties of materials in everyday life


Suggest ways to keep things hot Suggest ways to keep things cold

Covered with insulators

hot thing

cold thing

To prevent heat loss

prevent from absorbing heat

1.3 Uses of materials based on their properties

List of object and materials that they are made of

Reason why particular materials are used to make an object

object spoon tissue glasses

materials metal wood glass

properties hard Soft transparent

cheap
easy to get

strength
good quality

1.4 The importance of reuse, reduce and recycle of materials


wood cotton metal

plastics

synthetic cloth

natural materials

rubber

glass

Man-made materials

State that man-made materials comes from natural materials

reducing

reusing

recycling

public transport

plastic bag

bottle

plastics

glass

1.6

RUSTING CAN PREVENTED

DIFFERENT WAYS TO PREVENT OBJECTS FROM RUSTING

THE NECESSARY TO PREVENT RUSTING

Coating with non rusting materials *paint

*Everlasting Live *Save Natural material *Save Cost *Looking good

*oil
*grease

*Conclusion; Rusting can be avoided by preventing iron contact with air and water.

UNDERSTANDING THAT SOME

MATERIALS CAN BE RUST

RUSTY OBJECTS

NON RUSTY OBJECTS

OBJECT MADE OF IRON AND STEEL

OBJECT MADE OF GLASS PLASTIC, WOOD, CLAY AND SILK

*Nail *Spoon *Knife *Needle

*Glass *Bottle *Cup *Pencil

INVESTIGATING THE EARTH AND THE UNIVERSE

-Nine Planets -Natural satellites -Meteors -Comets -Asteroids

THE SOLAR SYSTEM

List of constituents

Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto

My Very Excellent Mother Just Served Us Nine Pudding List of planets

1.1 The solar system


Planets move around the Sun

the Earth the Sun 1 Size of the Sun relative to the size of the Earth. 100

the Earth 1

the Moon 4

1.2 The relative size and distance between the Earth, the Moon and the Sun

Size of the Earth relative to the size of the Moon.

The relative distance from the Earth to the Sun compared to the relative distance from the Earth to the Moon.

the Earth
the Sun 150 000 000 km 1 :

the Moon 382 500 km 400

The nearer a planet to the Sun is, the hotter is the surface of the planet . The farther a planet from the Sun is, the colder is the surface of the planet. Do not have enough air and water.

Much nearer : The temperature on the Earth would rise. Water on Earth would evaporate. No water and the temperature would be very hot. Much farther : The temperature on the Earth would drop. Water would freeze into ice. All living things would die.

1.3 Appreciating the perfect placement of the planet Earth in the Solar System
Why certain planets are not conducive for living things.
The Earth is the only planet in the Solar System that has living things.

EFFECT

Earth is the third planet from the Sun, it receives enough light and heat from the Sun. It is not too hot or too cold. The atmosphere of the Earth contains air and there is water on Earth.

INVESTIGATING TECHNOLOGY

1.1.Understanding the importance of technology in everyday life

Limitation of human ability

Examples of human limitations are Unable to see fine objects Unable to speak loud Unable to walk for long distance Unable to see far away objects

Microscope - The usage of lens to see fine features of objects and microbes Microphone -To increase the voice volume Telephone -To communicate from long distance Bicycle, motorcycle, airplanes -Can travel long distance in a shorter time Telescope, binocular - To see far away objects

Devices to overcome human limitation

TECHNOLOGY
1.2
Understanding The Development Of Technology

Agriculture

e.g.:
hoe plough tractor

combine harvester Transportation Land: Animal bicycle car train

Examples

Air: hot air balloon airship glider aeroplane Water: canoe raft sampan ferry ship Communication Drawing carrier pigeon

Construction Cave hut wooden house apartment

Telephone

TECHNOLOGY

Cannot move farther

Problems they encounter in their daily life

1.3 Synthesising how technology can be used to solve problems


Demonstrate that device invented can be used to solve the problem identified
Pully can lift everything

Cannot move and lift heavy thing Brain storming

Ideas to solve the problems identified


wheelbarrow Sketch the model

Device to solve the problem identified.

lever

Wheel barrow can move heavything easily

1.4 Analysing That Technology Can Benefit Mankind If Used Wisely

Advantages of Technology

Disadvantages of Technology

Communication Enable human to learn more about things happening around the world Transportation Enable human to travel far away places in shorter time Agriculture Machines make it easier to plants and harvest their crops Construction Roads, highways, bridges and building is easier and faster to build

Environmental pollution from increase In waste materials

Environmental destruction result from excessive usage of natural resources


Social problem Bad effects on health result from environmental pollution and excessive use of chemicals

1.1 Understanding that microorganism is a living things Microorganisma

Ciri-Ciri

Menyebabkan doh roti naik

roti lama Buah lama

kecil

1.1 Understanding that some microorganism are harmful and some are useful

Keguaan dan keburukan microorganism

Kegunaa

Keburukan

Penjagaan diri

Making bread/ tapai/tempe/fertilizer

Can cause

Disease

how animals take care of Their eggs and young.


Examples animals that take care of their eggs and young.
Bird, Frog, Spider, Fish, Snake, turtle, Kangroo, Elephant Bird - Eggs with shell covering Frog - Eggs are thick, slimy and having bad smell Spider - kept in a bag underneath its body Fish - keep their young in their mouths Snake, Tiger - attack in order to protect their eggs Turtle - hide their eggs Kangaroo - carry their young in their pouches Elephant - stay in herds

2.1 Survival of Animal Species

Why animals take care of their eggs and young.


To ensure the survival of their species

2.3 Importance

Shortage of food resource

Animals and plants species may face extinction.

Agents of dispersal

Special characteristic

Examples

Light

Coconut

Water

Air Space in the fruits Not water absorbent

Lily

Light

Shorea Angsana Lalang

Wind

2.2 Survival of Plant Species

Small in size Winged

Explosive mechanism

Dry when ripe Explodes when mature

Rubber fruit Balsam fruit Chestnut

Brightly coloured

Rambutan Mango Love grass Mimosa

Animal

Edible Have smells Have hook

3.1 Food Chain

Animals and the food they eat

Producer

Classify animals into herbivore, carnivore and omnivore.

Construct food chain

Consumer

All living things need food to survive. Green plant can make their own food. However animals cannot make their own make their own food.

Green plant obtain energy from the sun to make food. Green Plant as a producer

Herbivore : Animals that eat plants only. e.g.: cow, goat, deer

The food relationship among living things can be shown by a food chain.

Animals that eat plant or other animals are called consumers.

Carnivore: Animals that eat other animals. e.g.: tiger, lion To construct food chain It must start with plant as a producer.

Omnivore: Animals that eat plants and other animals

In a food chain the arrow means eaten by

3.2 Synthesizing food chain to construct food web.


What will happen to a certain species of animals if they eat only one type of food

Food web

Food web of different habitats

What will happen If there is a change in population of a certain species in a food web

A change in the population of a certain species will effect the Population of other species
garden

They will face difficulty to survive if the Source of food runs out

Paddy field

1 Energy

2 Electricity

3 Light

4 Heat

INVESTIGATING FORCE AND ENERGY


- by living things to carry out life processes. Ex : moving, breathing, growing - to move, boil, melt, or bounce non-living things

Why energy is needed?

ENERGY
Water
- moving or falling water produce energy

1.1 The Uses of Energy

Sun
- main source of energy - produces light and heat

The Sources of Energy

Food Batteries Fuel


- wood, coal, petroleum, natural gas

Wind
- Moving air - Used to pump water, drive small sawmills

- food contains stored energy

- device that generated electrical energy from chemical energy

INVESTIGATING FORCE AND ENERGY


Light energy Heat energy Electrical energy Kinetic energy Chemical energy

Sound energy

Form of energy
Potential energy

ENERGY
Energy can be transformed

1.2 Energy can be transformed from one form to another

Example of appliance that make use of energy transform

a) lighting a candle Chemical energy heat energy + light energy


b) Kicking a ball Chemical energy kinetic energy heat energy

a) Electric iron Electrical energy heat energy b) Radio Electrical energy sound energy c) Television Electrical energy sound energy + light energy

INVESTIGATING FORCE AND ENERGY


Energy that cannot be replaced Resources solar, wind, biomass fuel, water Energy that be replenished when it is used up Resources natural gas, petroleum, coal

Non-renewable energy

ENERGY
1.3 Renewable and Non-renewable Energy

Renewable energy

Why use energy wisely


Avoid wastage Some energy resources cannot be replenished when used up To save cost

How to use energy

Reduce pollution

Turn off the television when no one watching it

Switch off the lights before going to leave the room

Dry cell Precautions

Electricity

Sources

Dynamo Solar cell

Danger of mishandling electrical appliances Fire Burn Electrocution Parallel circuit Type of circuit

Accumulator

Electric shock Safety precautions to be taken when using appliances


Do not touch electrical appliances with wet hand
Do not repair electrical appliances on your own

Series circuit

Symbol and component

Name Dry cell Connecting wire Switch The bulb in the parallel circuit is brighter then the bulb in the series circuit Bulb

Symbol

Differences

Light
Travel in a straight line Can be reflected How ? The light that falls on objects bounces off the objects and comes to your eyes mirror
Opaque object

Uses of reflection How shadow is formed

Periscope

Kaleidoscope

When light is completely or partially blocked by an opaque object

Side mirror of a car

Light
Shadow form

Heat

Gain Loss

Warmer Cooler

The effects of heat on matter

How to measure temperature using the correct technique

Matter expands when heated

Matter contract when cooled

Investigating Materials

wood

water

milk

air

solid
stone

liquid

gas
stem

examples

1.1 Matter exist in the form of solid, liquid or gas

Properties of solid

Properties of liquid

Properties of gas
has mass

has mass

fixed shape has mass fixed volume

fixed volume

can't fixed shape

Can't fixed volume

no permanent shape

can compressed

solid - liquid

melting

Boiling

1.2 CHANGING STATES OF WATER

liquid - gas

Affected by windy and hot weather

evaporation

gas - liquid

condensation

liquid - gas

Freezing

1.3 Understanding the water cycle.

condensation evaporation

Importance of water.

Formation of clouds and rain.

sea

Circulation of water in the environment. Changes in the states of matter in the water cycle Gas liquid (Condensation) Droplets of water will become bigger and heavier rain

Liquid to gas (evaporation)

To prevent living aquatic from being destroyed and undergoing extinction

To avoid infected diseases

To regulate the formation of clouds and rain

Reasons to keep our water resources clean.

To ensure the cleanliness of water supply

1.4 Appreciating the importance of water resources.

Ways to keep our water resources clean Keep the rivers clean Cleanliness campaign

2.1 The properties of acid, alkaline and neutral substances.

Identify acidic, alkaline and neutral substances using litmus paper. Changes in colour of litmus papers blue to red red to blue

Identify the taste of acidic and alkaline food.

Conclude the properties of acidic, alkaline and neutral substances.

bitter

sour

Properties of acid Properties of alkali Properties of neutral substances

acid
no change neutral

alkaline

Taste bitter & change red litmus paper blue

Taste sour & change blue litmus paper red

Other tastes no changes in litmus paper

INVESTIGATING THE EARTH AND THE UNIVERSE

planting

harvesting desert

Constellation
Indicates Seasons

Importance of constellation
Show directions

sea

What constellation is

1.1 Understanding the constellation


A group of stars that form a certain pattern in the sky June - August Scorpion

Southern Cross

Identify constellation

Scorpion
south

Orion
South April June

Big dipper
Hunter

North

Kite or Cross Water dipper North December - January

THE EARTH , THE MOON AND THE SUN

Earth rotates on it axis

Moon rotates on it axis


Moon rotates and at the same time moves around the Earth

2.1 The movements of the Earth, the Moon and the Sun
The earth rotates on its axis from west to east

Earth rotates and at the same time moves around the sun

The Moon and The changes the Earth move in length and position round the Sun at of the shadow the same time throughout the day

night-time

daytime
the Sun the Earth

It is day time for the part of the Earth facing the Sun.

It is night time for the part of the Earth facing away from the Sun.

2.2 The occurrence of day and night axis Day and night occur due to the rotation of the Earth on its axis.

west

east

2.3 Phases Of The Moon


Describe the phases of the moon The Moon Does Not Emit Light

The Moon appear bright when it reflect sunlight

1-New moon, 3- New half moon, 5- Full moon

7- Old half moon

INVESTIGATING TECHNOLOGY

1.1 The shapes of objects in a structure


The shape of objects Identify shape in structure

Cylinder
Sphere

Cube

Cuboid

Cylinder

Sphere

Pyramid

Cone

Strength and Stability

Shapes of objects that are stable


Cube, cone, cylinder

The factors that affect stability of objects

1.2 The strength and stability of a structure

Height , base area

How base area affects stability


Bigger base area more stable Smaller base area less stable

How height affects stability


Design a model that is strong and stable Suggested design strong and stable Bridge one with manila card one with wood Lower object more stable Higher object less stable

The factors that affect the strength of a structure


Types of materials used Steel ,Iron, Wood

INVESTIGATING LIVING THINGS

1.1 Animals
Some live in groups (Animals that live together) Some live in solitary (Animals that live by themselves)

zebra

bees

ants

giraffes

snake

cat

lizard

tiger

For safety For Food

To avoid competition for food To avoid competition for space

Cooperation is a form of interaction

Sunlight Water
Reason

Limited sunlight can reach them Limited water resources Limited space Limited nutrient

Space Nutrient
Factors for compete

Plants

Animals
Factors for compete

1.2 Understanding that competition is a form of Interaction among living things

Food Water Mate Shelter


Reason

Limited food resources Limited water resources Trying to get mate to breed Defending or looking for shelter

Space

Defending or looking for space

Dodo bird Dinosaur Auk bird Desert rat kangaroo Mammoth Quagga Tasmanian wolf

Tiger Turtle Orang Utan Panda Rhinoceros Hornbill Blue Whale

Raflessia Pitcher plant Venus fly trap Wild orchid

Endangered plant ways to prevent extinction


Campaign against excessive Logging Educate the public about the importance of protecting & conserving animals & plant Avoid consuming or buying products made from endangered species Enforcing the law Replanting Selective logging Setting up forest reserved Setting rehabilitation centre Encourage recycle , reuse & reduce Campaign

Extinct animal Factors of Extinction

Endangered animal
1.3 Understanding the responsibility of human beings in protecting endangered species

Illegal Hunting Elephant Tusk Tiger Skin & Bone Blue Whale Fat Giant Panda Fur Rhinoceros - Horn

Excessive development Water & air Pollution Many habitat has destroyed Extreme Weather Long dry season Flood Forest fire

Illegal Logging Human cut trees Forest clearing The destruction of habitat

Erosion Landslide Flash-Floods Water & Air pollution

The Lost of habitat The lose of raw material &food supplies Climate changes The rise in temperature on earth Extinction of endangered species The balance in nature is disturbed The loss of the Earths natural water basin

Environmental destruction caused by human activities Air & water Pollution


Excessive use of fertilisers, pesticides & herbicides Heavy usage of motor vehicles Air pollution

Impact of uncontrolled human activities to the Earth

1.4 Knowing the impact of human activities on environment.


Impact of human activities to environmental destruction Illegal & Excessive hunting Erosion Landslide Flash-Floods Loss of habitats Improper management of waste from factory Improper management of waste from household

Extinction of endangered species Air & water Pollution Water Pollution Flash flood

Illegal & Excessive Logging Clearing Forest Improper management of development

INVESTIGATING FORCE AND ENERGY

1.Force

2.Movement

D E F I N I T I O N

INVESTIGATING FORCE AND ENERGY


Pull an action of bringing an object towards us Stop a moving object Move a stationary object

Effects
Push an action of moving an object away

Change the shape of an object Change the motion an object

Change direction of moving object Make object move faster or slower

FORCE
Friction
Definition Effects Reduce -Lubricant :oil, wax, grease or water -Air cushion -Talcum powder -Roller marbles Advantages/Disadvantages

-Force that apposes the movement of an object. -Two surfaces occurs rub against each other

-Surfaces warm. -Difficult to move -Wear and tear. -Slow down and stop

Advantages 1. Hold thing 2. Walk without slipping 3. Sharpen a knife 4. Slow down moving Disadvantages 1. Worn out the shoes / tyre 2. Produce heat

-Ball bearing

A measurement on how fast an object moves

Conclusion
an object which moves faster travels a longer distance in a given time an object which move faster takes a shorter time travel a given distance

Definition

Movement
Speed

Calculation
Formula Speed = distance / time

Unit km/h, m/s , cm/s

INVESTIGATING MATERIALS

Food that has turned bad and is not suitable to be eaten What is spoilt food Condition for microbes to grow

Characteristics of Spoilt Food


Unpleasent smell eg. Fish with bad smell Unpleasent taste eg. milk turns sour Changed colour eg.vegetables, rice Changed texture eg. Yogurt turns curd Mouldy eg. Yogurt have many black spots

1.1 Food Spoilage

Air Water Nutrient Suitable Temperature ( 5C - 65 C ) Suitable acidity

Microbes that spoilt food

Bacteria

Fungus

Example :
fish, prawn, fruits
Reason : Bacteria and fungi cannot grow without water

Example :
Eggs, water Reason : Boiled will killed bacteria and fungi

Example :
eggs, vegetables, fruits Reason : Cold temperature slow down the growth of bacteria and fungi

Example :
Biscuits, crackers,
Reason : Bacteria and fungi cannot grow without water

Drying

Boiling

Cooling

Vacuum packing Pickling

Waxing
Reason : Slow down the loss of water Example : Fruits

1.2 Food Preservation


(Process whereby food turning bad is slowed down)

Reason : Prevents the growth of bacteria and fungi Example : Fruits, chili, fish

Smoking
Reason : Dry the food Example : Fish, meat

Salting
Reason : Bacteria and fungi cannot grow in very salt substances Example : Fish, eggs

Pasteurising
Reason : Destroy microoganism Example : Milk, yogurt

Bottling/ canning
Reason : Bacteria and fungi cannot grow without air Example : Meat, fish, fruits

Freezing
Reason : Bacteria and fungi cannot active at a very low temperature Example : Fish, meat

1.3 The Importance of Preserving Food


Easier to carry

Food can be kept for a longer time

Easier to store

To prevent the wastage of food

Types of waste Gas Liquid Solid

2.1 The Effects of Improper Waste Disposal On The Environment


The Harmful Effect

The improper ways disposal Open burning Littering Chanelling- waste factories into river Releasing smoke and dangerous gasses The proper disposal ways Treat waste water Keep environment and home clean Reuse and recycle rubbish and waste Reduce car Build factories far from home

Smoke dissolved form weak acid Kills plants & fish Destroys building & bridges
Rubbish thrown in rivers or drain Cause flash-floods & water over flow Kill plants & animals in the river Open burning Cause asthma & eye irritation Air pollution Disease Cause by eating polluted fish and plants

Sources of wastes From agricultural activities From vehicles and open burning Toxic materials Rubbish

Microbes that cause waste to decay Fungi Bacteria

2.2 Some Waste Can Decay

Waste that do not decay


Tin can Plastic Synthetic Glass Metal objects

Waste that decay Paper Wood Food Meat Disadvantages of waste decaying Give out poisonous gas Unpleasant smell

What will happen if waste do not decay Animal extinction Habitats destruction Spoil natural beauty Change Climate

Advantages of waste decaying Return nutrient to soil Prevent rubbish from accumulate

INVESTIGATING THE EARTH & THE UNIVERSE

ECLIPSE OF THE MOON

The Earth is between the Sun and the Moon

The Earth, the Moon and the Sun are positioned in a straight line

The Earths position blocks sunlight from reaching the Moon.

Earth

Sun

Moon

The Earths shadow is formed on the Moon surface and cause an eclipse of the Moon

ECLIPSE OF THE SUN

The Moon is between the Sun and the Earth

The Earth, the Moon and the Sun are positioned in a straight line

The Moons blocks the sunlight from reaching the Earth

Earth

SUN

Moon

The Moons shadow is formed on the Earths surface

PHASES OF THE SUN DURING THE ECLIPSE

The place that experienced full eclipse is completely dark during the day time

INVESTIGATING TECHNOLOGY

1.1. Simple machine

A device that allows us to use less force to make work easier or faster
-To carry or move heavy objects

LEVER INCLINED PLANE

- e.g. hammer , spoon , scissor -To lift heavy objects easier e.g. stairs , slanting wooden plank -To carry to move heavy objects easily

WHEEL AND AXLE PULLEY WEDGE

e.g screw driver , car spanner -To carry or lift objects to a higher place -e.g flag pole , crane

-To cut or separate objects -E.g knife , saw , axe

SCREW GEAR

-To fix two objects together


-E.g drill bit , spanner -To move objects easily

-Gear in a watch

1.2 Analysing a complex machine


Made up of more than one simple machine.
Wheelbarrow Lever, wheel and axle

Hand Drill Wedge, wheel and axle

Bicycle Gear, lever, wheel and axle

Crane Gear, pulley, lever

Scissors Lever, wedge

Egg Beater Gear, wheel and axle

1.3 Appreciating the invention of machines that make life easier.

Life with machine

Life without machine

Help us travel from one place to another. Work in the fields is made easier and productivity of agricultural product is raised. Construction work is made easier and can be completed faster. Help to move heavy things.

Difficulty moving heavy things.

Will not be able to travel from one place to another faraway place.

KEM KECERMERLANGAN ULUL ALBAB

Zon Pelajaran Temerloh 2009 SCIENCE


Oleh Encik Ahmad bin Shafie