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ANALOG ELECTRONICS II

EMT 212/4 Semester 1 2006/2007

SYLLABUS
1. OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER (OP-AMP) Operation Differential amplifier Common-mode Parameters Basic op-amp Practical op-amp Data sheet

2. APPLICATIONS OF OP-AMP AND FREQUENCY RESPONSE Summing amplifier Voltage follower Comparator Integrator Differentiator Frequency response Compensation
3. FEEDBACK CIRCUITS Concepts of feedback Types of feedback connection Practical feedback circuit Feedback amplifier

SYLLABUS (contd)
4. OSCILLATOR Basic operating principles of an oscillator Phase-shift Wien bridge Crystal oscillator Uni-junction
5. ACTIVE FILTERS Basic filter Filter response characteristics Low-pass filter High-pass filter Band-pass filter Band-stop filter Frequency response measurement Design of filter: Butterworth, Chebychev, Elliptic 6. VOLTAGE REGULATOR Introduction Terminology Zener diode regulator Linear IC regulator Op-amp linear IC regulator

OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER
(OP-AMP)

OP-AMP CONCEPT

HISTORY
Fairchild

0.60 Inches
1964: The First Linear IC The A702 Op-Amp 1965: A Best-Seller The A709 Op-Amp

12 Transistors
Designer: Bob Widlar

14 Transistors
Designer: Bob Widlar

HISTORY (cont)

After Widlar left Fairchild, Dave Fullagar continued op-amp design and came up with the uA741 which is the most popular operational amplifier of all time. This designs basic architecture is almost identical to Widlars 309 op-amp with one major difference: the inclusion of a fixed internal compensation capacitor. This capacitor allows the uA741 to be used without any additional, external circuitry, unlike its predecessors. The other main difference is the addition of extra transistors for short circuit protection. This op-amp has a gain of around 250,000

WHAT IS AN OP-AMP?
Inexpensive, efficient, versatile, and readily available building blocks for many applications Amplifier which has Very large open loop gain Differential input stage Uses feedback to control the relationship between the input and output

WHAT DOES AN OP-AMP DO?


Performs many different operations Addition/Subtraction Integration/Differentiation Buffering Amplification o DC and AC signals

dx dt

WHERE IS AN OP-AMP USED?


Many applications including Comparators Oscillators Filters Sensors Sample and Hold Instrumentation Amplifier

STAGES OF AN OP-AMP
INPUT STAGE
OUTPUT STAGE

GAIN STAGE

STAGES OF AN OP-AMP

INPUT STAGE
Provides differential input for the op-amp Provides dc gain Has very high input impedance Draws negligible input current o Enables user to utilize ideal Op-Amp equations for
circuit analysis

GAIN STAGE
Provides the gain of the amplifier Gains up the differential signal from input and conveys it to the output stage

OUTPUT STAGE
Delivers current to the load Very low impedance output stage To minimize loading the output of the op-amp May have short circuit protection

INPUTS OF OP-AMP & PACKAGES

DIFFERENTIAL INPUT MODE


Both input terminals are used Input signals are 180 out of phase Output is in phase with non-inverting input

INVERTING MODE
Non-inverting input is grounded (connected to mid-supply) Signal is applied to the inverting input Output is 180 out of phase with input

NON-INVERTING MODE
Inverting input is grounded (connected to midsupply) Signal is applied to the non-inverting input Output is in phase with the input

OP-AMPS: 741

Note: Literally a Black Box

We use real op-amps: 741 Note the pin connections for the IC

OP-AMP: 741
Op-Amps require power

741 requires plus and minus 15V Others may require only positive or both positive and negative voltages Output voltage is limited to VCC VOUT Usually filter capacitors are connected to power to reduce noise

VCC

OP-AMP 741(schematic)

ICs come in many types of packages. We will use the 8pin, dual-in-line or DIP package Note the other offset nulling circuit

Data Sheet LM741

Data Sheet LM741

RF

RF

Data Sheet LM741

Data Sheet LM741