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Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR)

Lowers Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) emissions caused by high combustion temps


Reduces engine knock (ping)
EGR decreases combustion temperatures
EGR valve = main element of EGR system
Feeds small amounts of exhaust back to the combustion chamber
This dilutes the air/fuel mixture, combustion temperatures are reduced
Valve is open during engine cruise periods

EGR activation:
Warm engine operation
Above idle speed
EGR flow calculation
PCM looks at readings from:
ECT
TPS
VSS
MAP or MAF
IGN REF



The EGR valve opens and closes the passage between the exhaust manifold and intake manifold. Vacuum is used to move the EGR valves.

EGR opens and closes a passage between exhaust and intake.
EGR valves are opened using:
Vacuum (usually ported, may use vacuum control solenoid)
Electronic (EGR valve uses solenoid)

Pintle
Spring
Passages
Types of EGR:
1. Single Diaphragm
Used with or without
PCM controls

When the engine is idling, opening valve should stall the engine
Opens fully with about 8 Hg.
Used with a thermal vacuum switch and a possible vacuum delay valve.
Single diaphragm may be used in an electronically controlled systems
Basic standard since 1973
Types of EGR:
2. Integral Backpressure
With or without PCM
Internal Modulator
controls EGR flow based
on positive or negative
exhaust pulses
Types of EGR:
3. External Modulator
With or without PCM
External Modulator
controls EGR flow
based exhaust
pressure
Vacuum modulation is vital for good driveability and precise NOx control.
Types of EGR:
4. External sensor
PCM commands
solenoid (VSV)
Sensor reports EGR
valve position to PCM
May use 2 solenoids
(vacuum and vent)
EGR SOLENOID
Types of EGR:
6. Linear Solenoid EGR
No vacuum control
PCM PWM
Improved accuracy
Faster response (10X)
Improved diagnostics

Types of EGR:
Linear EGR schematic
5 wire:
2 for solenoid
3 for sensor
Types of EGR:
7. GM digital
No vacuum
3 solenoids, 3 different
exhaust ports.
Valves may be
operated separately or
together to control
EGR.

Types of EGR:
GM Digital Schematic
Types of EGR:
8. GM Integrated
Electronic

Combines vacuum and electronic operation
PCM controlled vacuum regulator is built into
the top of the EGR valve.
PWM signals operate regulator solenoid and
control vacuum.
Ported vacuum is supplied to the EGR valve
assembly.
EGR pintle sensor provides feedback to the
PCM to verify desired action has occurred.
Types of EGR:
GM EGR solenoid details.
PCM controlled PWM
PCM regulates the time the EGR is open by regulating
solenoid on time (more EGR).
Percentage of solenoid on time is the duty cycle:
0% equals no EGR; 100% equals maximum EGR.
EGR vacuum switch signals PCM -vacuum present
9. External Modulator with PCM controlled vacuum
solenoid
PCM command opens or closes vacuum solenoid
Modulator controls EGR flow based on vacuum & exhaust backpressure
Vacuum signal varies through throttle opening

Low
backpressure
High
backpressure
Various EGR controls