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# Chapter 8: Symbolic Logic

## Modern Logic and Its Symbolic Language

The Symbols for Conjunction, Negation, and Disjunction
Conditional Statements and Material Implication
Modern Logic and Its Symbolic Language
Theory of Deduction
Classical/Aristotelian Logic
Modern/Symbolic Logic
Its modern development began
with George Boole in the 19
th

century.
Why Symbolic Logic?
1. Ordinary everyday language is flowery and
ambiguous (because of equivocation, amphiboly, accent,
vagueness, etc.)
2. Symbolic logic introduces high degree of clarity and
simplicity.
3. There is also economy of space and time.

Symbolic logic begins by first identifying the fundamental
logical connectives on which deductive argument
depends.
The Symbols for Conjunction,
Negation, and Disjunction
Consider the following simple arguments:
The blind prisoner has a red hat or the blind prisoner has a
white hat.
The blind prisoner does not have a red hat.
Therefore the blind prisoner has a white hat.
And
If Mr. Robinson is the brakemans next-door neighbor, then
Mr. Robinson lives halfway between Detroit and Chicago.
Mr. Robinson does not live halfway between Detroit and
Chicago.
Therefore, Mr. Robinson is not the brakemans next-door
neighbor.
In studying such arguments we divide all propositions
into two general categories:
1. Simple Propositions
2. Compound propositions
Simple vs Compound
Simple Propositions
Statements which cannot be broken down without a
loss in meaning.
E.g. Ali and Sara is a couple (if break it down to Ali is
a couple and Sara is a couple)
But Ali and Shah are diligent students is not a simple
sentence because it can be broken down without a
change in meaning.
Ali is a diligent student. Shah is a diligent student.
This is an example of a Compound Proposition.
Propositions and Operators
Representation in symbolic logic:
Ali and Sara is a couple. A
Ali and Shah are diligent students. A S
A S
1- Conjunction
There are several types of compound statements, each
requiring its own logical notation.
The first type of compound statement is the conjunction
We can form the conjunction of two statements by placing the
word and between them.
Thus, the compound statement, Ali and Shah are diligent
students is a conjunction
Symbol is used to represent and thus:
Ali and Shah are diligent students. A S
Truth Value
We know that every statement has a truth value, where
the truth value of a true statement is true and the truth
value of a false statement is false
Hence, the truth value of the conjunction of two
statement is determined wholly and entirely by the
truth values of its two conjuncts.
If both conjuncts are true, the conjunction is true;
otherwise it is false.

Truth Table
Given any two statement, p and q, there are only four
possible sets of truth values they can have i.e.

Other words to conjoin: but, yet, also, still,
although, however, moreover, nevertheless,
comma, and the semi colon, etc.
p q p q
T T T
T F F
F T F
F F F
2- Negation
The negation (contradictory or denial) of a statement is formed by the
insertion of a no in the original statement.
Alternatively, it can also be written as it is false that or it is not the
case that
Thy symbol ~ called a curl or a tilde, to form the negation of a
statement.
Examples: Where M symbolizes the statement All humans are
mortal, the various statements:
Not all humans are mortal,
Some humans are not mortal,
It is false that all humans are mortal, and
It is not the case that all humans are mortal
are symbolized as ~M.
The negation of any true statement is false, and the negation of any
false statement is true.

These can be presented very simple and clearly
by means of a truth table:

Disjunction
The disjunction (or alternation) of two statement is formed by
inserting the word or between them.
The word or is ambiguous, having two related but
distinguishable meanings.
E.g. Premiums will be waived in the event of sickness or
unemployment.
The intent here is that premiums are waived not only for sick
persons and for unemployed person, but also for person who
are both.
In this sense, or is called weak or inclusive.
An inclusive disjunction is true if one or the other or both
disjuncts are true; only if both disjuncts are false is their
inclusive disjunction false.
The word or is also used in a strong or exclusive sense, in
which the meaning is not at least one but at least one and at
most one.
but not both is often added.
We interpret the inclusive disjunction of two statement as an
assertion that at least one of the statements is true, and we
interpret their exclusive disjunction as an assertion that at least
one of the statements is true but not both are true.
Wage V is used for inclusive disjunction

Punctuation
Punctuation is required if complicated statements are to be
clear.
E.g. quite different meanings attach to The teacher says John is
a fool when it is given different punctuations.
Punctuation is equally necessary in mathematics.
E.g. 2 x 3 + 5
In the language of symbolic logic punctuation marks such as (),
[], {} are essential for compound statements.
E.g. p . q v r is ambiguous.
E.g. Jamal and Derek will not both be elected.
and
Jamal and Derek will both not be elected.
The first denies the conjunction of J.D and may be symbolized as ~(J.D)
The second says that each one of the two will not be elected, and is
symbolized as ~(J).~(D)
Exercises (page#315 )
A. Using the truth-table definitions of the dot, the wedge, and
the curl, determine which of the following statements are true:
B. If A, B, and C are true statements and X, Y, and Z are
false statements, which of the following are true?
B. If A, B, and C are true statements and X, Y, and Z are
false statements, which of the following are true?
Assignment
Solve the whole exercises A (25 questions), and
B (25 questions): Page 315-318 (14
th
Edition)