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Chapter 23

Mass Society in an Age of Progress,


1871 - 1894
The Industrial Regions of Europe by 1914

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The Growth of Industrial
Prosperity
New Products
Substitution of steel for iron
Growth of chemical industry
Electricity
Thomas Edison (1847-1931) and Joseph Swan light bulb
Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) telephone, 1876
Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) radio waves across the
Atlantic, 1901
Electric railway in Berlin, 1879
Internal combustion engine
Automobile and airplane
Henry Ford (1863-1947) mass production
Zeppelin airship, 1900
Wright brothers, 1903
New markets
National income growth
Real wages increase
Spend more on consumer goods
Competition for foreign markets
Cartels
Protective tariffs
New Patterns in an Industrial Economy
Depression, 1873-1895
Economic boom after 1895
La belle poque
German Industrial Leadership
Germany replaces Britain as the industrial leader of
Europe
Union of science and technology
European Economic Zones
Europe into two economic zones
Advance industrial core of Great Britain, Belgium France,
the Netherlands, Germany, western part of the Austro-
Hungarian Empire, and northern Italy
Little industrial development in southern Italy, most of
Austria-Hungary, Spain, Portugal, the Balkan kingdoms,
and Russia
Agricultural growth
Tariff barriers
A World Economy
Economic development in conjunction with growth
in marine and railroad transportation
Women and Work: New Job Opportunities
Right to work
Domesticity
Sweatshops
White-Collar Jobs
Increased white-collar jobs creates shortage of male workers
opening up opportunities for women
Secretaries and teachers
Freedom from dirty work of the lower-class world
Prostitution
Working-class girls flocked to the cities
Employment unstable and wages low
Licensed and regulated
Contagious Diseases Acts in Britain, 1870s and 1880s
Organizing the Working Class
Socialist Parties
German Social Democratic Party (SPD)
Marxist rhetoric, improve the condition of the working class
German Social Democrats
Socialist party
Jean Jaurs (1859-1914)
French socialism
Social Democratic Labor Party
Marxist, organized in Russia in 1898
Second International
Revisionism and Nationalism
Eduard Bernstein (1850-1932), Evolutionary Socialism, 1899
Demise of capitalism not near
Bourgeoisie expanding
Proletariat improving
Discarded class struggle
Evolution not revolution
Role of Trade Unions
Develop slowly
German trade unions attached to political parties
Anarchist Alternative
Support in less industrialized and less democratic countries
People inherently good but corrupted by state and society
Michael Bakunin, use of assassination and violence
Emergence of a Mass Society
Population Growth and Emigration
Medical discoveries and environmental conditions
Improved public sanitation
Improved diet
Increased emigration
Between 1846 and 1932, 60 million Europeans left Europe, half to
the United States, the other half to Canada and Latin America
Transformation of the Urban Environment
Growth of cities
Improving Living Conditions
Public Health Act of 1875 in Britain
Clean water into the city
Expulsion of sewage
Housing Needs
Reformer-philanthropists
Port Sunlight by Lord Leverhulme, 1887
Garden city movement in Britain, Ebenezer Howard
British Housing Act, 1890
Redesigning the cities
Redesign of Vienna and Paris
Defensive walls pulled down
Great boulevards
New buildings
Displaced population
Population
Growth in
Europe, 1820-
1900

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The Social Structure of the Mass Society
The Elite
5% of the population that controlled 30 to 40 percent of wealth
Alliance of wealthy business elite and traditional aristocracy
The Middle Classes
Upper middle class, middle middle-class, lower middle-class
Share common lifestyle and values
Professionals
White-collar workers
The Lower classes
80 percent of the European population
Agriculture
Skilled, semiskilled, unskilled workers
The Woman Question: The Role of
Women
Marriage
Birth control
The Middle-class Family
Domesticity
Leisure time
Schooling of sons
Boy Scouts
Working-class Family
Daughters work until married
1890 to 1914 higher paying jobs made it possible to live on the
husbands wages
Limit size of the family
Education and Leisure in an Age of Mass
Society
Mass education in state-run systems
Personal and social development
Needs of industrialization
Need for an educated electorate
Differences in education of boys and girls
Teachers
Increased literacy
Newspapers
Mass Leisure
Amusement parks
Music and dance halls
Tourism
Sports
Recreation
Professional sports
Amusement parks
Sundays
The National State
Western Europe: The Growth of Political
Democracy
Reform in Britain
William Gladstone
Suffrage
Reform
Ireland
Limited land reform
Home Rule Act, 1914
The Third Republic in France
Paris Commune, 1871
Government troops break the commune
Republican constitution, 1875
General Georges Boulanger (1837-1891), 1889
Spain and Italy
Spanish constitution, 1875
Generation of 1898
Sectional differences in Italy
Central and Eastern Europe: Persistence of the
Old Order
Germany
Prussian military tradition
Bismarcks conservatism
Kulturkampf
Social Democratic Party
Social welfare programs
Austria-Hungary
Problem of minorities
Prime Minister Count Edward von Taaffee, 1879-93
Imperial emergency decrees
Parliamentary system in Hungary
Russia
Alexander III, 1881-1894
Reform had been a mistake
Nicholas II, 1894-1917
Weak