A directional antenna radiates and receives preferentially in some
direction
Depicted as two or threedimensional spatial distribution of
radiated energy as a function of the observers position along a
path or surface of constant radius
Lobes are classified as: major, minor, side lobes, back lobes
Radiation pattern
Coordinate system for antenna analysis
Radiation pattern
For an antenna
The Field pattern(in linear scale):
typically represents a plot of the magnitude of the electric or
magnetic field as a function of the angular space.
The Power pattern(in linear scale):
typically represents a plot of the square of the magnitude of the
electric or magnetic field as a function of the angular space
The Power pattern(in dB):
represents the magnitude of the electric or magnetic field, in
decibels, as a function of the angular space.
Radiation pattern
Radiation pattern
various parts of a radiation pattern are referred to as a lobes
Total electric field
is given as
Three dimensional polar pattern
Radiation pattern
various parts of a radiation pattern are referred to as a lobes
Two dimensional polar pattern
Radiation pattern lobes
Various parts of a radiation pattern are referred to as lobes
Major lobe (main lobe):
The radiation lobe containing the direction of maximum
radiation
Major lobe is pointing at =0 direction in figure
In spiltbeam antennas, there may exist more than one
major lobes
Minor Lobe
is any lobe except a major lobe
all the lobes exception of the major lobe
Side lobe: a radiation lobe in any direction other than intended lobe
Usually it is adjacent to main lobe
Back lobe:
a radiation lobe whose axis makes an angle of
approximately 180
0
with respect to the beam of antenna
usually it refers to a minor lobe that occupies the
hemisphere in a direction opposite to that of major lobe
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Radiation Power Density
Poynting Vector or Power density(w)
The instantaneous poynting vector describe the power
associated with electromagnetic wave
Poynting vector defined as
W = E x H
W instantaneous poynting vector (W/m
2
)
E instantaneous electric field intensity (V/m)
H instantaneous magnetic field intensity (A/m)
Radiation Power Density
The total power crossing a closed surface can be obtained by
integrating the normal component of poynting vector over the entire
surface.
p= instantaneous total power (W)
n = unit vector normal to the surface
da = infinitesimal are a of the closed surface (m
2
)
we define the complex fields E and H which are related to their
instantaneous counter parts E and H by
Radiation Power Density
identity
W = E x H =
The first term of is not a function of time, and the time variations of the
second are twice the given frequency.
Average Power Density:
The average power density is obtained by integrating the
instantaneous Poynting vector over one period and dividing
by the period.
Wav=
the real part of represents the average (real) power density the imaginary
part Must represent the reactive (stored) power density associated with the
electromagnetic fields
Radiation Power Density
The average power radiated by an antenna (radiated power)
can be written as
Radian and Steradian
A radian is defined with the using Figure ( a)
It is the angle subtended by an arc along the
perimeter of the circle with length equal to
the radius.
A steradian may be defined using Figure (b)
Here, one steradian (sr) is subtended by an
area r
2
at the surface of a sphere of radius r.
The infinitesimal area dA on the surface of
radius r is defined as
dA =r
2
sin d d (m
2
)
A differential solid angle, dO, in sr, is given
by
d = dA/r
2
= sin d d (sr)
= sin d d
Unit of plane Angle is a radian
Unit of Solid Angle is a steradian
Isotropic antenna
Isotropic antenna or isotropic radiator or
isotropic source or omnidirectional radiator
or simple unipole
is a hypothetical (not physically realizable)
lossless antenna having equal radiation in all
directions
used as a useful reference antenna to
describe real antennas.
Its radiation pattern is represented by a
sphere of radius (r) whose center coincides
with the location of the isotropic radiator.
All the energy(power) must pass over the
surface area of sphere=4r
2
Isotropic antenna
Poynting vector or power density(w) at any point on the sphere
power radiated per unit area in any direction
The magnitude of the poynting vector is equal to the radial component
only(because p
= p
=0)
w=w
r
The total radiated power
p= w.ds
= w
r
.ds
= w
r
ds
= w
r
4r
2
w
r
= p/4r
2
watt/m
2
where
W
r
radiated power of average power density
P total power radiated
Isotropic antenna
The total power radiated by it is given by:
The power density is given by:
which is uniformly distributed over the surface of a sphere of radius r.
Isotropic antenna
g
Directional antenna
is an antenna, which radiates (or receives) much more
power in (or from) some directions than in (or from) others
Note:
Usually, this term is applied to antennas whose
directivity is much higher than that of a halfwave dipole
For linearly polarized antenna performance is often described
in terms of its principal Eand HPlane patterns
E Plane : the plane containing the electric field vector and the
maximum radiation
H Plane : the plane containing the magnetic field vector and the
maximum radiation
xz elevation plane contain principal E plane
xy azimuthal plane contain principal H plane
Principal Patterns
Principal E and H plane pattern for a pyramidal horn antenna
The space surrounding an antenna is usually subdivided into three
regions:
Field Regions
The space surrounding an antenna is usually subdivided into three
regions:
Reactive nearfield region:That portion of the nearfield region
immediately surrounding the antenna wherein the reactive field
predominates.
Radiating nearfield (Fresnel) region:That region of the field of an
antenna between the reactive nearfield region and the farfield region
wherein radiation fields predominate and wherein the angular field
distribution is dependent upon the distance from the antenna
Farfield (Fraunhofer) region:That region of the field of an antenna
where the angular field distribution is essentially independent of the
distance from the antenna.
Field Regions
The space surrounding an antenna is usually subdivided into three
regions:
Field Regions
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Radiation intensity in a given direction is defined as the power
radiated from an antenna per unit solid angle.
The radiation intensity is a farfield parameter, and it can be obtained
by simply multiplying the radiation density by the square of the
distance.
U = r
2
W
rad
W
rad
radiation density (W/m
2
)
r distance (m)
U  radiation intensity (W/ unit solid angle)
Radiation Intensity
The radiation intensity is also related to the farzone electric field of
an antenna, by
The total power is obtained by integrating the radiation intensity,
over the entire solid angle of 4. Thus
Radiation Intensity
Radiation patterns may be functions of both spherical coordinate
angles and
Let the radiation intensity of an antenna be of the form
The maximum value of radiation intensity
The total radiated power is found using
Radiation Intensity
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Directivity
Directivity (D):
the ratio of the radiation intensity in a given direction from the antenna to
the radiation intensity averaged over all directions
the directivity of a nonisotropic source is equal to the ratio of its radiation
intensity in a given direction over that of isotropic source
The average radiation intensity is equal to the total power radiated by the
antenna divided by 4t.
If the direction is not specified, it implies the direction of maximum radiation
intensity (maximum directivity) expressed as
U = radiation intensity (W/unit solid angle)
Umax = maximum radiation intensity (W/unit solid angle)
U
0
= radiation intensity of isotropic source (W/unit solid angle)
P
rad
= total radiated power (W)
D = directivity(dimensionless)
D
0
= maximumdirectivity(dimensionless)
Directivity
The general expression for the directivity and maximum
directivity (D
0
) using
Directivity
( )
( )
( )
,
,
,
n
n
avg
P
P
D
u 
u 
u 
=
The directive gain,, of an antenna is the ratio of the
normalized power in a particular direction to the
average normalized power, or
( )
( )
( )
max
max
max
,
,
,
n
n
avg
P
D D
P
u 
u 
u  = =
The directivity, Dmax, is the maximum directive gain,
max
4
p
D
t
=
O
Directive gain
( )
( ) ,
,
4
n
p
n
avg
P d
P
d
u 
u 
t
O
O
= =
O
} }
} }
Where the normalized powers average value taken
over the entire spherical solid angle is
( )
max
1 ,
n
P u  =
Using
Directivity
Partial Directivity of antenna:
Partial directivity of an antenna for a given polarization in a given direction as
that part of the radiation intensity corresponding to a given polarization
divided by the total radiation intensity averaged over all directions.
With this definition for the partial directivity, then in a given direction
the total directivity is the sum of the partial directivities for any two
orthogonal polarizations
For a spherical coordinate system, the total maximum directivity D
0
for the
orthogonal and components of an antenna can be written as
While the partial directivities D
and D
are expressed as
Directivity
Directional Patterns:
In Figure2.14(a). For a rotationally symmetric pattern, the halfpower beam widths in
any two perpendicular planes are the same, as illustrated in Figure2.14(b).
With this approximation, maximum directivity can be approximated by
Directivity
Directional Patterns:
With this approximation, maximum directivity can be approximated by
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Antenna Gain
The ratio of the intensity, in a given direction, to the radiation
intensity that would be obtained if the power accepted by the
antenna were radiated isotropically
The radiation intensity corresponding to the isotropically
radiated power is equal to the power accepted (input) by the
antenna divided by 4
In equation form this can be expressed as
Antenna Gain
the ratio of the Power gain in a given direction to the power
gain of a reference antenna in its referenced direction
The power input must be the same for both antennas
Mostly Reference antenna is a lossless isotropic source. Thus
When the direction is not stated, the power gain is usually taken in
the direction of maximum radiation.
We can write that the total radiated power related to the total input
power
Antenna Gain
Antenna Gain
Partial gain of an antenna
For a given polarization in a given direction
Total gain
Antenna Gain
Relationship between antenna gain and effective area
G = antenna gain
A
e
= effective area
f = carrier frequency
c = speed of light (3x10
8
m/s)
= carrier wavelength
2
2
2
4 4
c
A f A
G
e e
t
t
= =
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Antenna Efficiency
In general, the over all
Efficiency can be written as
Radiation Resistance & Antenna Efficiency
Radiation resistance (R
rad
) is a fictitious resistance,
such that the average power flow out of the antenna is
P
av
= (1/2) I
2
R
rad
Using the equations for our short (Hertzian) dipole we find that
R
rad
= 80 t
2
(l/)
2
ohms
Antenna Efficiency
c
o
= R
rad
/(R
rad
+ R
loss
)
where R
loss
ohmic losses as heat
Gain = c
o
x Directivity
G = c
o
D
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Beamwidth
Halfpower beamwidth (HPBW) (
H
)
is the angle between two vectors from the patterns origin to the
points of the major lobe where the radiation intensity is half its
maximum
Often used to describe the antenna resolution properties
Important in radar technology, radioastronomy, etc.
Power pattern of U()=
Firstnull beamwidth (FNBW) (
N
)
is the angle between two vectors, originating at the patterns origin
and tangent to the main beam at its base.
Often FNBW 2*HPBW
Beam efficiency
To judge the quality of transmitting and receiving antennas
If
1
is chosen as the angle where the first null or minimum
occurs, then the beam efficiency will indicate the amount of
power in the major lobe compared to the total power.
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Bandwidth
Bandwidth: the range of frequencies within which the performance of
the antenna, with respect to some characteristic, conforms to a
specified standard
For broadband antennas, the bandwidth is usually expressed as the
ratio of the uppertolower frequencies of acceptable operation
F.E. 10:1 bandwidth indicates that the upper frequency is 10 times
greater than the lower
For narrowband antennas, the bandwidth is expressed as a
percentage of the frequency difference (upper minus lower) over the
center frequency of the bandwidth
F.E. a 5% bandwidth indicates that the frequency difference of
acceptable operation is 5% of the center frequency of the
bandwidth
gain, side lobe level,
beamwidth,
polarization, and
beam direction
Pattern
bandwidth
input
impedance and
radiation
efficiency
Impedance
bandwidth
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Polarization
Polarization of an antenna:
the polarization of the wave transmitted (radiated) by the antenna
When the direction is not stated, the polarization is taken to be
the polarization in the direction of maximum gain
Polarization of the radiated energy varies with the direction from
the center of the antenna, so that different parts of the pattern
may have different polarizations
Polarization may be classified as linear, circular, or elliptical
Polarization
Polarization of a radiated wave
is defined as that property of an electro magnetic wave
describing the time varying direction and relative magnitude of
the electricfield vector; specifically, the figure traced as a
function of time by the extremity of the vector at a fixed location
in space, and the sense in which it is traced, as observed along
the direction of propagation.
Polarization then is the curve traced by the end point of the
arrow (vector) representing the instantaneous electric field. The
field must be observed along the direction of propagation. A
typical trace as a function of time is shown in Figure
Polarization of EM Waves
Clockwise rotation of the E vector= righthand polarization
counterclockwise rotation of the E vector = lefthand
polarization
Polarization of EM Waves
Horizontal polarization
Vertical polarization
Circular polarization
(RCP)
Circular polarization
(LCP)
Polarization of EM Waves
AR: The ratio of the major axis to the minor axis is referred to as the axial ratio (AR)
,and it is equal to
Polarization Electromagnetic wave
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Polarization of EM Waves
The instantaneous field of a plane wave, traveling in the
negative z direction:
Instantaneous components are related to their complex
counterparts by
where E
xo
and E
yo
are, respectively, the maximum magnitudes
of the x and y components.
Linear Polarization:
A timeharmonic wave is linearly polarized at a given point in
space if the electricfield (or magneticfield) vector at that point
is always oriented along the same straight line at every instant
of time.
This is accomplished if the field vector (electric or magnetic)
possesses:
Only one component, or
Two orthogonal linear components that are in time phase or 180
(or multiples of 180) outofphase.
the timephase difference between the two components must
be
linearly polarized plane waves
) ( tan
) cos( e ) cos( e
0
0
1
2
0
2
0
0 0
x
y
y x
y y x x
E
E
E E E E
kz t E kz t E E
=
+ = =
+ =
u
=
=


.

\



.

\



.

\

+


.

\

+ + =
+ =
o
o
o o
o
[216]
Polarization
Typical Applications
Vertical polarization is most commonly used when it is
desired to radiate a radio signal in all directions over a
short to medium range.
Horizontal polarization is used over longer distances to
reduce interference by vertically polarized equipment
radiating other radio noise, which is often predominantly
vertically polarized.
Circular polarization is most often used in satellite
communications.
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Polarization Loss Factor & Efficiency
Usually, polarization of the receiving antenna polarization of
the incoming (incident) wave
polarization mismatch.
The amount of power extracted by the antenna from the
incoming signal will not be maximum because of the
polarization loss
Assuming that the electric field of the incoming wave can be
written as
unit vector of
the wave
Polarization Loss Factor & Efficiency
Polarization of the electric field of the receiving
antenna
Polarization loss factor (PLF)
angle between the two
unit vectors
Polarization Loss Factor & Efficiency
Polarization efficiency
= Polarization mismatch = loss factor :
the ratio of the power received by an antenna from a given
plane wave of arbitrary polarization to the power that would be
received by the same antenna from a plane wave of the same
power flux density and direction of propagation, whose state of
polarization has been adjusted for a maximum received power
Polarization Loss Factor & Efficiency (Cont)
PLF for transmitting and receiving aperture antennas
Polarization Loss Factor & Efficiency
PLF for transmitting and receiving linear wire antennas
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Input Impedance (Transmitting mode)
Input impedance:
the impedance presented by an antenna at its terminals or
the ratio of the voltage to current at a pair of terminals or
the ratio of the appropriate components of the electric to
magnetic fields at a point
We are primarily interested in the input impedance at the input terminals
of the antenna
Input Impedance
Ratio of the voltage to current at these terminals, with no load
attached, defines the impedance of the antenna as
Input Impedance
Assume that the antenna is attached to a generator with
internal impedance
We can find
the amount of power delivered to R
r
for radiation by
the amount of power dissipated in R
L
as heat by
Input Impedance
Current developed within the loop is
Input Impedance
Magnitude of current developed within the loop is
The power delivered to the antenna for radiation is given by
and that dissipated as heat by
Input Impedance
The remaining power (Pg) is dissipated as heat on the
internal resistance Rg and it is given by
The maximum power delivered to the antenna occurs when
we have conjugate matching
For this case
Input Impedance
From equations (281)(283), It is clear that
The power supplied by the generator during conjugate
matching is
Antenna in the Receiving Mode
The incident wave impinges upon the antenna, and it
induces a voltage V
T
All the formulation is same as the transmitting mode (just
replace subscript g with T)
Antenna in the Receiving Mode
Under conjugate matching
Powers delivered to R
r
,R
L
,and R
T
are given, respectively,
by
While the induced (collected or captured) is
Under conjugate matching of the total power collected or captured (Pc) half is
delivered to the load R
T
and the other half is scattered or reradiated through Rr
and dissipated as heat through R
L
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Antenna Radiation Efficiency
Remember that antenna efficiency that takes into account the
reflection, conduction, and dielectric losses
The conduction and dielectric losses of an antenna are very
difficult to compute
Even with measurements, they are difficult to separate and they
are usually lumped together to form the e
cd
efficiency.
The resistance R
L
is used to represent the conductiondielectric
losses
Antenna Radiation Efficiency
power delivered to the radiation resistance
the power delivered to R
r
and R
L
Conductiondielectric efficiency
where
R
r
Radiation Resistance
R
L
Loss Resistance
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Equivalent areas
With each antenna, we can associate an umber of equivalent areas.
These are used to describe the power capturing characteristics of the
antenna when a wave impinges on it
Effective area (aperture) A
e
Scattering area (aperture) A
s
loss area (aperture) A
L
Capture area (aperture) A
c
Effective area (Aperture) A
e
the ratio of the available power at the terminals of a receiving
antenna to the power flux density of a plane wave incident on the
antenna from that direction, the wave being polarization matched
to the antenna. If the direction is not specified, the direction of
maximum radiation intensity is implied.
Equivalent areas
Effective area Ae
The effective aperture is the area which when multiplied by
the incident power density gives the power delivered to the
load
Equivalent areas
Effective area Ae
Under conjugate matching
The maximum effective area A
em
Equivalent areas
The scattering area A
s
is defined as the equivalent area when multiplied by the
incident power density is equal to the scattered or
reradiated power.
Under conjugate matching
A
s
Equivalent areas
The loss area A
L
is defined as the equivalent area, which when multiplied by
the incident power density leads to the power dissipated as
heat through R
L
Under conjugate matching
Equivalent areas
Capture area A
c
is defined as the equivalent area, which when multiplied by
the incident power density leads to the total power
captured, collected, or intercepted by the antenna
Under conjugate matching
In general, the total capture area is equal to the sum of the
other three
Capture Area = Effective Area+Scattering Area+Loss Area
A
c
= A
e
+ A
S
+ A
L
Equivalent areas
Aperture Efficiency:
ap
is defined as the ratio of the maximum effective area A
em
and of the antenna to its physical area A
p
the maximum effective aperture of any antenna is related to its
maximum directivity D
0
by
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Introduction
Radiation Pattern
Radiation Power Density
Radiation intensity
Directivity, Gain, Antenna efficiency, Beamwidth
Bandwidth
Polarization, Linear, circular, and elliptical polarization
Polarization loss factor and efficiency
Antenna Input Impedance
Elementary idea about self and mutual impedance
Radiation efficiency
Effective aperture, Antenna Temperature
TEST1, Syllabus upto here
Antenna Temperature
The brightness temperature emitted by the different sources is
intercepted by antennas, and it appears at their terminals as an
antenna temperature
The temperature appearing at the terminals of an antenna is that
given by
Antenna Temperature
Antenna temperature (effective noise temperature of the
antenna radiation resistance; K) T
A
Assuming no losses or other contributions between the antenna
and the receiver, the noise power transferred to the receiver is
given by
Antenna Temperature
Antenna Noise Power (P
r
)
Antenna Temperature
Antenna temperature at the receiver terminals
Antenna Temperature
The effective antenna Temperature (T
a
) at the receiver
terminals is given by
Antenna Temperature
The antenna noise power
The system noise power
If the receiver itself has a certain noise temperature T
r
(due to
thermal noise in the Receiver components), the system noise
power at the receiver terminals is given by
Antenna Temperature
Antenna Temperature
CONTENTS
Antennas
Fundamental Parameters of Antennas
Arrays
Radio Wave propagation
Arrays
Introduction
TwoElement Array
NElement Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing
Broadside Array
Ordinary EndFire Array
HansenWoodyard EndFire Array
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform
Amplitude
Analysis of Binomial and DolphTschebyscheff Array
Scanning Array, Superdirective array
Arrays
Introduction
TwoElement Array
NElement Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing
Broadside Array
Ordinary EndFire Array
HansenWoodyard EndFire Array
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform
Amplitude
Analysis of Binomial and DolphTschebyscheff Array
Scanning Array, Superdirective array
Arrays
INTRODUCTION
Enlarging the dimensions of single elements often leads to
more directive characteristics (very high gains) to meet the
demands of long distance communication
An other way to enlarge the dimensions of the antenna,
without necessarily increasing the size of the individual
elements, is to form an assembly of radiating elements in
an electrical and geometrical configuration. This new
antenna, formed by multi elements, is referred to as an
array
Arrays
INTRODUCTION
The total field of the array is determined by the vector addition of
the fields radiated by the individual elements
To provide very directive patterns, it is necessary that the fields
from the elements of the array interfere constructively (add) in
the desired directions and interfere destructively (cancel each
other) in the remaining space
There are at least five controls that can be used to shape the
overall pattern of the antenna
1. The geometrical configuration of the overall array (linear,
circular, rectangular, spherical, etc.)
2. The relative displacement between the elements
3. The excitation amplitude of the individual elements
4. The excitation phase of the individual elements
5. The relative pattern of the individual elements
Arrays
Applications
An array that is widely used
as a basestation antenna for
mobile communication.
It is a triangular array consisting
of twelve dipoles, with four
dipoles on each side of the
triangle.
Each four element array, on
each side of the triangle, is
basically used to cover an
angular sector of 120 forming
what is usually referred to as a
sectoral array.
Arrays
Introduction
TwoElement Array
NElement Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing
Broadside Array
Ordinary EndFire Array
HansenWoodyard EndFire Array
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform
Amplitude
Analysis of Binomial and DolphTschebyscheff Array
Scanning Array, Superdirective array
Arrays
TWOELEMENT ARRAY:
Two infinitesimal horizontal dipoles positioned along the z
axis, as shown in figure 6.1(a)
Figure 6.1 Geometry of a two element array positioned along
the zaxis.
Arrays
TWOELEMENT ARRAY:
The total field radiated by the two elements, assuming no
coupling between the elements, is equal to the sum of the
two and in the yz plane it is given by
Phase difference between the elements adjacent
element
k=2t/
The magnitude excitation of the radiators is identical (I
0
)
Phase difference=(2t/)x Path difference
Arrays
TWOELEMENT ARRAY:
Assuming farfield observations and
referring to Figure 6.1(b)
Equation 61reduces to
Arrays
TWOELEMENT ARRAY:
The total field of the array is equal to the field of a single
element positioned at the origin multiplied by a factor
which is widely referred to as the array factor.
Thus for the twoelement array of constant amplitude, the
Array Factor is given by
which in normalized form can be written as
Arrays
TWOELEMENT ARRAY:
The array factor is a function of the geometry of the array
and the excitation phase.
By varying the separation d and /or the phase between
the elements, the characteristics of the array factor and of
the total field of the array can be controlled.
Arrays
TWOELEMENT ARRAY:
Pattern Multiplication:
The farzone field of a uniform two element array of
identical elements is equal to the product of the field of a
single element, at a selected reference point (usually the
origin), and the array factor of that array. That is,
Arrays
Introduction
TwoElement Array
NElement Linear Array: Uniform Amplitude and Spacing
Broadside Array
Ordinary EndFire Array
HansenWoodyard EndFire Array
NElement Linear Array : Uniform Spacing, Non Uniform
Amplitude
Analysis of Binomial and DolphTschebyscheff Array
Scanning Array, Superdirective array
Arrays
NELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY: Uniform Amplitude and
Spacing
Let us generalize the method to include N elements. Referring to
the geometry of Figure 6.5(a),
Let us assume that all the elements have identical amplitudes
but each succeeding element has a progressive phase lead
current excitation relative to the preceding one.
An array of identical elements all of identical magnitude
and each with a progressive phase is referred to as a
uniform array
Arrays
NELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY: Uniform Amplitude and
Spacing
Arrays
NELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY: Uniform Amplitude and
Spacing
The Array factor (AF)
By applying pattern multiplication rule on arrays of identical
element . The array factor is given by
Total phase difference = Phase difference due to path difference + =kdcos+
Phase difference=(2t/)x Path difference=kdcos
Phase difference between the elements adjacent element
Arrays
NELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY: Uniform Amplitude and
Spacing
Multiplying both sides by e
j
subtracting Eq 6.6 from Eq 6.8
Which can also be written as
6.6
Arrays
NELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY: Uniform Amplitude and
Spacing
AF
If the reference point is the physical center of the array, the array
factor of (610) reduces to
if is small
Arrays
NELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY: Uniform Amplitude and
Spacing
maximum value of array factor is equal to N
Normalized Array Factor
Arrays
NELEMENT LINEAR ARRAY: Uniform Amplitude and
Spacing
Nulls of the Array:
(AF)
n
=0
= n
To find the nulls of the array,
Eq (610c) or (610d) is set equal
to zero
= (kdcos
n
+) = 2nt/N
cos
n
= (/2td)( 2nt/N)
The values of n determine the order of the
nulls (first, second, , etc.)