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Anurag Anand 5

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What is a marker?
A marker is a diagram of a precise arrangement of
pattern pieces for sizes of a specific style that are to be
cut from one spread.
What is marker making?
Marker making is the process of determining a most
efficient layout of pattern pieces for a style, fabric and
distribution of sizes.
What is marker efficiency?
Marker efficiency is defined as a ratio of area of marker
used in a garment and area of total marker.

Although most fabric usage is controlled by the marker,
the losses outside the marker are far from insignificant.

There are essential losses associated with spreading:
ends of ply waste and ends of piece waste.

Since it is impossible to spread the fabric so that all the
plies are arranged precisely, the width of the marker
must be made a little narrower than the fabric.

This results in width loss.
Direct Losses
Ends of ply losses: the limpness and extensibility of
fabrics and the limitations of spreading machinery
necessitate an allowance of some fabric at the ends of
each ply.

Some stable fabrics may permit smaller allowances and
some unstable fabrics may require more.

Standards should be established for ends waste and
regularly practices should be monitored in the cutting
Ends of piece losses: since fabric is produced and
processed in batches, there are inevitable losses due to
end effects. They may be un-desirable due to
distortions created during the finishing of fabric.

The most important ply loss comes because the fabric is
not an exact multiple of the ply length.

The spreader must either splice in the next piece,
resulting in the loss of fabric from the end of the piece to
the nearest splice point, or the part ply must be laid aside
as a remnant and processed separately.
To minimise waste, managers have sought to increase
the average length of the pieces that are purchased.

This strategy has a number of other advantages
including: a reduction in documentation, reduced
levels of shade separation of pieces and higher
productivity in spreading.

This requires good communication, training and
systematic monitoring to ensure that the practices are
Edge losses: The marker is said to be made to the
usable width of the fabric. That is dependent on the
quality of selvedge, the consistency of fabric width and
also on the precision of edge control during spreading.

The fabric losses outside the marker are very sensitive to
the edge waste allowances. Great care should be taken to
see that the allowances are not excessive.

Width variations must be controlled along with these
edge allowances.
Splicing losses and fabric faults: During spreading it
maybe necessary to cut out fabric faults. It is in the
hands of he company to decide whether this will create
an inferior product and whether it will be acceptable.

If the marker has been planned without splice positions,
and a faulty length of material has to be cut out, the
length from the ply end to the fault has to be laid aside as
a remnant.

The splice markers decide the wastage. The average waste
per splice is approximately half the distance between the
splice lines.
Indirect Losses
Remnant losses: These are produced when companies
separate different shades of fabric pieces and lay up
only complete plies or when short lengths of material
are left over after the completion of a lay.

Either one remnant lay may be spread over every
production lay, or the lays may be accumulated over a
period of time and a deeper lay spread to reduce cutting
Marker planning losses: It is not unusual for fabric to
be received which has less than the specification usable
width. To avoid downgrading cut panels, because they
contain selvedge edges, a new marker must be

There may also be special markers responding to
customer requirements, or due to production pressures.
Ticket Length losses: In many cases, a gross length is
recorded, which is the distance between the ends, and
also a net length, which is the distance for which the
charge is made.

The difference between the two figures arises because
the supplier credits the purchaser with an agreed length
of fabric for each strung fault.
Marker Making Parameters
In recent years the number of markers required by
apparel manufacturers has escalated disproportionately
to growth. Orders are getting smaller, the number of
different styles is increasing, and lead times are getting
shorter - all of which put more pressure on the marker
making department.
Objectives of marker planning and marker
-Optimizing fabric utilization through marker
-Understanding the importance of the same in
apparel and garments manufacture.

The results of cut order planning depend on cutting
orders that direct marker planning and lay planning.
The purpose of marker planning is to determine the
most efficient combination of sizes and shades for
each order and to produce the best fabric yield and
equipment utilization.

One garments cutting order may require several
markers to achieve optimum efficiency of marker.
Usually one of these is a remnant marker for the short
pieces and ends of rolls left over. This helps to reduce
fabric waste. Each marker requires a lay of fabric.
Requirements of Marker Planning
The nature of the fabric and the desired result in the
finished garment
Pattern alignment in relation to the grain of the fabric.
Symmetry and asymmetry.
Design characteristic of the finished garment.

Requirements of quality in cutting

The requirements of production planning.
Spreading Parameters
Shade Sorting Of Cloth Pieces : A garment made from
parts cut from different pieces would be likely to show
shaded effect between different panels. Thus after
delivery they should be sorted into batches such that
the shade variation is undetectable.

Correct Ply Direction And Adequate lays stability:
These two factors must be considered together as the
opportunities for achieving them are related. They
depend on fabric type, pattern shape and the
spreading equipment that is available.
Alignment of plies: every ply should comprise at least
of the length and width of the marker plan, but should
have the minimum possible extra outside those

Correct Ply Tension: If the plies are spread with too
slack a tension they will lie in ridges in irregular
fullness. If plies are spread in a stretched state, they
will maintain the tension while held in the lay.

Elimination of Fabric Faults: Fabric faults may be
identified by the fabric suppliers, and additional faults
maybe detected during examination of the fabric by
the garment manufacturer prior to spreading.
Setup of Spreading
Involves the same basic steps as each cutting order
a)Marking of the table for the precise length of the

b)Marking splice points

c)Placing spreading paper

d)Marking various sections.
Material Management in Clothing Production David
J. Tyler.
Glock and Kunz.