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Learning Documents

Learning Outcomes
(Sub-Task)
Learning Outcomes
(Sub Task)
Sub-sub-tasks Sub-sub-tasks Sub-sub-tasks
Unit of Competency
(Main Task)

Supporting
Knowledge
Supporting
Knowledge
Supporting
Knowledge
Supporting
Knowledge
Supporting
Knowledge
Methodological & Social Skills
Methodological & Social Skills
Nature of Competency
Need to systematically determine the content (skills +
knowledge + methodological & social skills), and the
relationship between different pieces of content
Perform Task Analysis
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How competent
people perform
tasks at workplace
Identify Unit of Competency
Determine Learning outcome
(and sub-sub-tasks)
Identify Supporting Knowledge,
Methodological & Social Skills
Sequence Learning outcomes
based on actual work flow
Specify how to teach
Task Analysis
Modular Approach to Acquire Competency
Develop Session Plan
Develop CBLM
Design Learning
Determine what to teach
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Purpose of CBLM
To develop a learners guide complete with
related documents to facilitate learning to
acquire competencies of a module
What is a CBLM?
A written document that consists of instructions and
related print based documents of a competency.
The print based documents are:

Information sheet
Operation sheet
Job sheet
Worksheet

Learners follow the self explanatory instruction to
complete the activities and exercise to learn
independently

Strategy: Questioning
Dales Cone of Experience
Developed by Edgar Dale to help educators select
instructional resources and activities
Source :
http://teacherworld.com/potdale.html
Textual vs Pictorial instructions
Text lead to
internal verbal
representations
Then to
propositional
representations
Before readers
build a mental
model
Source :
Factors Affecting the Processing of Procedural Instructions : Implications for Document Design -
Franck Ganier
Text alone Picture alone
Text and Picture
Picture lead to
direct
construction of
mental model
But lack in
actions
specifications
Leading to
inferences
production
Lead to more
precise
information
Faster mental
model
representations
Cognitive load
How does a student learn the competency?
Strategy: Questioning
Unit of
Competency
LO 1 LO 2 LO 3
Learn skills
Check learning
Learn the
knowledge
Practice
skills
Learn skills
Check learning
Learn the
knowledge
Practice
skills
Learn skills
Check learning
Learn the
knowledge
Practice
skills
1
2
3
4
What are the learning documents needed?
Strategy: Questioning
Overview of the Competency
Activities
for LO 1
Activities
for LO 2
Activities
for LO3
Learn skills
Check learning
Learn the
knowledge
Practice skills
Perform activity for the competency
Learn skills
Check learning
Learn the
knowledge
Practice sub-
task
Learn skills
Check learning
Learn the
knowledge
Practice sub-
task
Information
sheet
Worksheet
Operation sheet
Job sheet
Learners
guide
Characteristics of a well written CBLM
Objective, learning outcome should be spelt
Clearly situate learning
Instructions should be simple, uncluttered
Language used should be at students language ability
All terms used should be standardized, detail
explanation should be given for terms that are used
first time
Guide should be complete and self sufficient (user
friendly, easy to understand)
Clearly state assessment criteria and how learning or
performance would be measured
Overview of the Learners Guide
Overview of the learners guide serves as an introduction to
this document, which is the most important document for
students, it should include:
What is the unit of competency?
What are the learning outcomes of the
Competency?
At which point of their work will need to perform
this task?
What are the documents included in the CBLM?
What are the Performance criteria?
How would they be assessed?
PLAN
EXPLORE
PRACTISE
PERFORM
DEVELOP DOCUMENTS IN
LEARNERS GUIDE
What will be covered
Develop
Learners
Guide
Develop
Documents in
Learners
Guide
Develop print-based
Learning material
Purpose of learner's
guide
Characteristics of well
written learner's guide
Elements of learner's
guide
Learning type
Recall Content Types
Purpose of learning
materials
Characteristics of well
designed learning
materials
Elements of learning
materials
Document design
principles
Instructional methods
What are print-based learning
materials?
A set of documents detailing technical knowledge
that the student need to acquire for a learning
outcome
Every learning material created contains both text
and visual contents
Appearance of learning materials matters to ease
the process of reading and locating information
It is the writers job
to make learning material easy for reader
to make sure reader do not miss any important
information e.g. safety information
What are print-based learning
materials?
1. What kinds of learning strategies are adopted in using
print-based learning materials?
Instructions-based
Task-based
2. What kinds of cognitive processes are implicated in
processing the instructions presented in the print-
based learning materials?
Receptance
Selective perception
Short-term storage
Semantic encoding
Long-term storage
What kinds of learning strategies do readers use when reading print-based
learning documents?
Consider this statement

Print-based learning documents are read by
the reader before the reader uses the
equipment,
i.e. knowledge is acquired from the instructions
before applying it to concrete tasks.

Agree?

Learning takes place in a linear process
Strategy: Polling
What kinds of learning strategies do readers use when reading print-based
learning documents?
42% of users worked with the equipment
concurrently with reading the instructions
23% of users read the instructions before using
the equipment
19% of the users learn by doing (without making
any reference to the instructions)
17% of the users refer to the instructions only
when in doubt

In most cases, learning was not linear, but was
most often done at various points in time
(interactive)
Source :
Factors Affecting the Processing of Procedural Instructions : Implications for Document Design -
Franck Ganier
5 Content types of knowledge
Principle Procedure Process Concepts Facts
Remember the
Facts

State unit of
measurement
for resistance

Remember
Apply
Classify new
examples

Differentiate
between
resistance,
inductance
and
capacitance

Remember
the definition

Define the
term
resistance

Solve problems;
Make inferences

What happens to
current when
resistance is
changed?

Remember
the stages

Describe how
resistance
works in
electrical
circuit

Perform the
Procedure

Given the
voltage and
current,
compute the
resistance

Remember
the steps

List the steps
to compute
resistance
using Ohms
law

Perform the
task; Solve
problems

Design the RC
oscillator
circuit based
on given
specifications
Remember the
guidelines

List the
guidelines to
design a RC
oscillator
Strategy: Questioning
Source :
Developing Technical Training by Ruth Colvin Clark
Instructional methods
Informational displays
Practice exercises
The type of informational displays
depends on the type of content

Displays for facts are different from
displays for concepts and procedures
Practice exercises are matched to the
learning objective

A well written learning objective tells
how to design the practice
Types of print-based document in Learners Guide
Information Sheet
Operation Sheet
Worksheet/Self-Check
Job Sheet
Types of print-based document in Learners Guide
Information sheet
Operation sheet
Worksheet
Job sheet
This is the compilation of the technical knowledge
and information relevant to the tasks to be
performed in this competence

Guidelines for Designing Information Sheets
Purpose of Information Sheet
Facts
Concepts
Principles
Design Elements related to Information Sheet
Remember and Apply level
Principle
Concepts Facts
Remember the
Facts

Remember
Apply
Classify new
examples

Remember
the definition

Perform the
task; Solve
problems

Remember the
guidelines

Guidelines for Designing Information Sheets
Informational Displays
Elements to help long term retention of facts, concepts and
principles and aid easy retrieval
Use diagrams for Concrete Facts
Use tables and lists for Data
Use clear statements for Associative Facts, Principles and Guidelines
Cueing reader with unique labels
Group related concepts in close proximity
Use bulleted lists for guidelines
Practice Exercises
Design practice for facts, concepts and principles
Incorporate factual information into practice of linked task (procedure
or principle)
Examples and non-examples to provide opportunities to practice
discrimination skill
Apply guidelines to realistic work scenarios
Types of print-based document in Learners Guide
Information sheet
Operation sheet
Worksheet
Job sheet
Worksheet contains exercise that will help
students to reinforce learning or to check
students understanding of technical knowledge
needed in the whole task (unit of competence)
Guidelines for Designing Worksheets
Purpose of Worksheets
Practice type
Learning outcomes pertaining technical knowledge (theory)
Practice exercises are matched to the learning outcomes
Design Elements related to Worksheets
Remember and Apply level
Principle
Concepts Facts
Remember the
Facts

Remember
Apply
Classify new
examples

Remember
the definition

Perform the
task; Solve
problems

Remember the
guidelines

Guidelines for Designing Worksheets
Specific elements will be covered in DAT01 Assessment
Tools for Theory Content

Mismatch Between Test Item and Learning Outcome
Learning Outcome: Measure the temperature of a patient

Practice item:

List the steps for measuring the temperature of a
patient in the space below:

_____________________
_____________________
_____________________
Apply Level
Remember Level
Types of print-based document in Learners Guide
Information sheet
Operation sheet
Worksheet
Job sheet
Operation sheet provides instructions to guide
students on how to operate the equipment and
machines used in the learning activities
Types of print-based document in Learners Guide
Information sheet
Operation sheet
Worksheet
Job sheet
Job sheet consists of a set of instruction that will
guide students to complete a job
Guidelines for Designing Operation /
Job Sheets
Purpose of Operation / Job Sheets
Procedures
Processes
Design Elements related to Operation / Job Sheets
Remember & Apply level
Procedure
Remember
Apply
Perform the
Procedure

Remember
the steps

Process
Solve problems;
Make inferences

Remember
the stages

Execution of action
Comprehension
Read instructions
Storage
Recall
Textual Instructions for Designing
Operation /Job Sheets
Choice of Word-Order
Choose word-order corresponding to action plan
Execution of the action is made easier when the
presentation order corresponds with the execution order
Structural properties
Compact texts (i.e. paragraph)
Segmented texts (i.e. lists)
Segmented texts allow readers to find specific information
more quickly
Numbered lists presented in vertical sequence is read
more quickly


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Guidelines for Designing
Operation /Job Sheets
Informational Displays
Elements to help learning of procedures
Use multicolumn texts for aligning embedded graphics
Use tables for linear and decision procedures
Use numbered lists for sequential steps
Elements to help learning of processes
Use process table or flow diagrams to present stages
Page headings on process page layout should be prominent
Practice Exercises
Design practice for learning procedures
Give steps to summarize actions or decision tables
Provide follow-along demonstrations
Assign short exercises to perform the procedures
Design practice for learning processes
Designed to match learning at application level
Key to design process exercises is to collect realistic case studies