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NOISE IN COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS

Noise is any unwanted electrical signals that are always present in


electrical systems. The presence of noise superimposed on a signal tends
to obscure or mask the signals. It limits the receivers ability to
demodulate a modulated carrier perfectly.
Noise arises from a variety of sources, both man-made and natural.
Man-made noise includes such sources as spark-plug ignition noise,
switching transient, spark from electrical motor, etc.
Natural noise includes electrical circuit and component noise,
atmospheric and galactic noise, etc.
Good engineering design can eliminate much of the noise or its
undesirable effect through filtering, shielding, the choice of modulation,
and the selection of an optimum receiver site.
There is a natural source of noise that cannot be eliminated, called
thermal or Johnson noise.
THERMAL NOISE (1)
A resistive conductor contains free electrons that have some random
motion if it has a temperature above absolute zero ( > 0K ). This random
motion causes a noise voltage to be generated at the terminals of the
conductor.




Power spectral density of thermal noise generated in the conductor is:




1
2
) (
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
kT
f h
tn
e
f h
f S
T : absolute temperature
K : Boltzmann constant
H : Planck constant
THERMAL NOISE (2)
Hz
h
kT
K T
Joule h
K Joule k
kT f S
kT
f h
e
h
kT
f
o
o
o tn
o
kT
f h
o
o
12 34
23
10 6
290
sec . 10 63 . 6
/ 10 38 . 1
2 ) ( 1
=

=
=
=
= + ~ <<

THERMAL NOISE (3)


Maximum noise power is
transferred if R
L
= R
2
1
) ( =
+
=
L
L
R R
R
f H
2 2
2
2
1
) ( ) ( ) (
2
2
o o
o tn n
kT
kT f S f H f S
q
= = = =
Thermal noise power in bandwidth B :
B kT B df P
o o
B
B
o
n
= = =
}

q
q
2
THERMAL NOISE (4)
Thermal noise is also called as white noise, because it has uniform power
distribution over wide frequency range ( > 10
12
Hz ).

o
is noise power spectral density for positive frequency, so that if there
are positive and negative frequencies ( for mathematical purposes), then
the noise power spectral density is
o
/2


WHITE NOISE (1)
The primary spectral characteristics of thermal noise is that its power
spectral density is the same for all frequencies of interest in most
communication systems.
A thermal noise source emanates an equal amount of noise power per
unit bandwidth at all frequencies, from dc to about 10
12
Hz.
A simple model for thermal noise assumes that its power spectral density
S
n
(f) is flat for all frequencies, as shown in the figure below.
The absence of a delta function in the power spectral density at the origin
of the figure means that no dc power, that is, its mean or average value is
zero.
WHITE NOISE (2)
The factor 2 is included to indicate that S
n
(f) is a two-sided power spectral
density.
The noise has such a uniform spectral density, is called white noise.
The autocorrrelation function of white noise is given by the inverse Fourier
transform of the noise power spectral density.
}
} }


= =
= =
) (
2 2
1
2

2 2
1
) (
2
1
) (
t o
q
e
t
q
e
q
t
e e
t
t
et
et
et
o
j
o
j
o
j
d e
d
e
d e S R
WHITE NOISE (3)
The autocorrelation function of white noise consists of a delta function
weighted by the factor
o
/2 and occurring at = 0.
R
n
() = 0 for 0 Any two different samples of white noise, no matter
how close together in time, are uncorrelated.

EXAMPLE #1
B f
f S f H f S
o o
n y
s = =
=
for
2 2
1
) ( ) ( ) (
2
2
q q
( ) | | B B B B df df f S P
o
o o
B
B
o
y y
q
q q q
= = = = =
} }


2
2 2 2
) (
EXAMPLE #2
( )
2
2
2 1
1
) (
2 1
1
) (
fRC
f H
fRC j
f H
t t +
=
+
=
( )
2
2
2 1
2 /

) ( ) ( ) (
fRC
f S f H f S
o
n y
t
q
+
=
=
( )
| |
RC
u
RC
du
u RC
P
RC
du
df RCdf du f RC u
df
f RC
df f S P
o o o
y
o
y y
4
tan
4 1
1
4
2
2 2
2 1
1
2
) (
1
2
2
q
t
q
t
q
t
t t
t
q
= =
+
=
= = =
+
= =


}
} }
NOISE EQUIVALENT BANDWIDTH (1)
df f H df f H P
o
o
n
} }

= =
0
2 2
1
) ( ) (
2
q
q
2
) (
o
n
f S
q
=
2
) (
o
n
f S
q
=
}

= =
0
2
2
2
) 0 ( ) (
n o o n
B H df f H P q q
NOISE EQUIVALENT BANDWIDTH (2)
) 0 (
) (
) ( ) 0 (
2
0
2
0
2
2
H
df f H
B df f H B H
n o n o
}
}

= =q q
In the same way, the noise equivalent bandwidth of a BPF can be derived
B
n
is called the noise equivalent bandwidth of the LPF, if P
n1
= P
n2
df f H P
o n
}

=
0
2
1
) ( q
NOISE EQUIVALENT BANDWIDTH (3)
) (
2
2 c n o n
f H B P q =
) (
) (
) ( ) (
2
0
2
2
0
2
2 1
c
n c n o o
n n
f H
df f H
B f H B df f H
P P
}
}

= =
=
q q
NOISE FIGURE (1)
) ( f S
ni
) ( f S
no
) ( f P
i ) ( f P
o
) ( ) (
) (
Figure Noise
port output at the power signal : ) (
port input at the power signal :
port output at the psd noise : ) (
port input at the psd noise : ) (
f S f G
f S
F
f P
(f ) P
f S
f S
ni
no
o
i
no
ni
=
NOISE FIGURE (2)
1
) (
) (
) (
) (

) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) (
) (
) ( ) (
) (
>
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
= =
F
N
S
N
S
B f S
f P
B f S
f P
B f S f P
B f S f P
B f P
B f P
f S f G
f S
F
o
i
n no
o
n ni
i
n ni o
n no i
n i
n i
ni
no
NOISE TEMPERATURE (1)
K 0
K T
e

K 0
K T
e

1 o
N
2 o
N
K T
N N
e
o o

=
is
network of re temperatu Noise
If
2 1
NOISE TEMPERATURE (2)
o
N
i
N

=
+ =
=
n e d
d i o
n o i
B GkT N
N GN N
B kT N
n o e
n e n o o
B T T Gk
B GkT B GkT N
) ( + =
+ =
( )
( )

=
=
i o
o
i
GS S
N S
N S
F
/
/
) 1 ( 1
) (
= + =
+
=
+
= =
F T T
T
T
T
T T
B GkT
B T T Gk
GN
N
F
o e
o
e
o
e o
n o
n e o
i
o
SYSTEM NOISE TEMPERATURE (1)
Bn
G
T
T T k G G
B kT G B kT G G B kT G G
N N G N G G N
e
e o
n e n e n o
d d i o
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + =
+ + =
+ + =
1
2
1 2 1
2 2 1 1 2 2 1
2 1 2 2 1

) ( ) (
i
N
i
N G
1
1 d
N
i
N G G
2 1
1 2 d
N G
2 d
N
SYSTEM NOISE TEMPERATURE (2)
i
N
1
2
1 2 1
Anggap
) (
G
T
T T G G G
B T T Gk N
e
e e
n e o o
+ = =
+ =
1 2 1 2 1
3
1
2
1
...
. ..........
: network port two cascaded N for re temperatu noise System

+ + + + =
N
eN e e
e es
G G G
T
G G
T
G
T
T T
.......
1 1 1
) 1 (
3 2 1
4
2 1
3
1
2
1
+

+ =
=
G G G
F
G G
F
G
F
F F
F T T
s
o e
ANTENNA NOISE TEMPERATURE
n
a
a n a a
kB
P
T B kT P = =
Antenna noise temperature
a
T
Noiseless antenna
a
T
Elevation
angle
TRANSMISSION LINE NOISE TEMPERATURE
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
.
|

\
|
=
= +
L
L
B kT
L
B kT P
B kT P
L
B kT
n p n p sal
n p sal
n p
1 1
1

|
.
|

\
|

=
|
.
|

\
|

= =
L
L
T T
L
L
B kT B kT B kT P
p L
n p n L n L sal
1
1

n p
B kT n p
B kT
L T
p
,
n p
B kT

L
B kT
n p

sal
P
L T
p
,
L
|
.
|

\
|

=
L
L
T T
p L
1
L
) 1 ( = L T T
p L