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TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1

COMP 416
Internet Protocols and Software
Instructor: Zhijun Wang

Projects are available online
The first quiz will be given in next lecture (Oct. 15)
It covers the first 4 lectures

Todays contents
Underlying Technology
Virtual LAN
TCP/IP Protocol Suite 2
Chapter 3

Underlying Technology
Understand the Ethernet
Understand the types of point-to-point WANs
Understand the types of switched WANs
Differentiate between repeaters, bridges, routers, and hubs
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3.1 Local Area Networks
A local area network (LAN) is a data communication system
that allows a number of independent devices to communicate
directly with each other in a limited geographic area such as
a single department, a single building, or a campus. A large
organization may need several connected LANs. The most
popular LANs are Ethernet and wireless LANs.
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Figure 1 Carrier sense multiple access with collision detection ( CSMA/CD)
LAN is a communication medium shared by multiple users.
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Figure 2 Ethernet layers
Response for Flow
and error control
Responsible for the
operation of
access method
Ethernet layer is above physical layer including logical link control and
Media access control sub-layers
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Figure 3 Ethernet frame
Used for synchronization
Identify the frame start
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3.2 Point-to-Point WANs
A second type of network we encounter in the I nternet is the
point-to-point wide area network. A point-to-point WAN
connects two remote devices using a line available from a
public network such as a telephone network.
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Figure 4 56K modem
PCM: Pulse code modulation
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ADSL (Asynchronous digital subscriber line) is
an asymmetric communication technology
designed for residential users;
it is not suitable for businesses.
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Figure 5 Bandwidth division in ADSL
Telephone call
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Figure 6 ADSL and DSLAM
Digital subscriber line access multiplexer
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Figure 7 Cable bandwidth
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Figure 8 Cable modem configurations
Cable modem transmission system
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Table 1 Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) rates
5 Gbps
10 Gbps
STS: synchronous
transport signal
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3.3 Switched WANs
The backbone networks in the I nternet are usually switched
WANs. A switched WAN is a wide area network that covers a
large area (a state or a country) and provides access at
several points to the users. I nside the network, there is a
mesh of point-to-point networks that connects switches. The
switches, multiple port connectors, allow the connection of
several inputs and outputs.

Frame relay
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
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A cell network uses the cell as the basic unit
of data exchange. A cell is defined as a
small, fixed-size block of information.
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Figure 9 Architecture of an ATM network
UNI: User-to-network interface NNI: Network-to-network interface
ATM: asynchronous transfer mode
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Figure 10 Virtual circuits
VCI: Virtual circuit identifier
VPI: Virtual path identifier
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Note that a virtual connection is defined by
a pair of numbers:
the VPI and the VCI .
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Figure 11 An ATM cell
ATM cell is a 53-byte packet
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3.4 Connecting Devices
LANs or WANs do not normally operate in isolation. They are connected
to one another or to the I nternet. To connect LANs or WANs, we use
connecting devices. Connecting devices can operate in different layers of
the I nternet model. We discuss three kinds of connecting devices:
repeaters (or hubs), bridges (or two-layer switches), and routers (or
three-layer switches). Repeaters and hubs operate in the first layer of the
I nternet model. Bridges and two-layer switches operate in the first two
layers. Routers and three-layer switches operate in the first three layers
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Figure 13 Connecting devices
Router is a three-layer device (physical, data link and network layers)
Bridge is a two-layer device (physical and data link layers)
Repeater is a physical layer device
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Figure 14 Repeater
A repeater connects segments of a LAN.
A repeater forwards every bit;
it has no filtering capability.
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Figure 15 Function of a repeater
A repeater is a regenerator, not an amplifier.
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Figure 16 Bridge
A bridge has a table used in filtering decisions.
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Figure 17 Learning bridge
A bridge does not change the physical (MAC) addresses in
a frame.
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Figure 18 Routing example
A router is a three-layer physical, data link, and network) device.
A router changes the physical addresses in a packet.
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A repeater or a bridge connects segments of
a LAN.
A router connects independent LANs or
WANs to create an internetwork (internet).
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The term Gateway is used with different meanings in
different contexts
Gateway is a generic term for routers (Level 3)
Gateway is also used for a device that interconnects
different Layer 3 networks and which performs translation
of protocols (Multi-protocol router)

IP Network
Gateway Gateway
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Many times it is necessary to connect a local area network to
another local area network or to a wide area network.
Local area network to local area network connections are often
performed with a bridge-like device.
Local area network to wide area network connections are usually
performed with a router.
A third device, the switch, can be used to interconnect segments
of a local area network.
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To separate / connect one corporate division with another.
To connect two LANs with different protocols.
To connect a LAN to the Internet.
To break a LAN into segments to relieve traffic congestion.
To provide a security wall between two different types of users.
Why Interconnect?

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An Example of Internetworking

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A transparent bridge does not need programming but observes all
traffic and builds routing tables from this observation.
This observation is called backward learning.
Each bridge has two connections (ports) and there is a routing
table associated with each port.
A bridge observes each frame that arrives at a port, extracts the
source address from the frame, and places that address in the
ports routing table.
A transparent bridge is found with CSMA/CD LANs.
Transparent Bridges-I
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A transparent bridge can also convert one frame format to
another, but this does not happen too often anymore since most
networks are CSMA/CD.
Note that some people / manufacturers call a bridge such as this
a gateway or sometimes a router.
The bridge removes the headers and trailers from one frame
format and inserts (encapsulates) the headers and trailers for the
second frame format.
Transparent Bridges-II
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A remote bridge is capable of passing a data frame from one
local area network to another when the two LANs are separated
by a long distance and there is a wide area network connecting
the two LANs.
A remote bridge takes the frame before it leaves the first LAN
and encapsulates the WAN headers and trailers.
When the packet arrives at the destination remote bridge, that
bridge removes the WAN headers and trailers leaving the
original frame.
Remote Bridges
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An Example of Remote Bridges
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What happens if you have many LANs interconnected
with multiple bridges?
Data that leaves one workstation could travel to a
bridge, across the next network, into the next bridge,
and back onto the first network.
A packet may continue to cycle like this forever!
Loop in Connected LANs
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Consider the two LANs that are
connected by two bridges.
Assume host n is transmitting a
frame F with unknown destination.
What is happening?
Bridges A and B flood the frame
to LAN 2.
Bridge B sees F on LAN 2 (with
unknown destination), and copies
the frame back to LAN 1
Bridge A does the same.
The copying continues
Wheres the problem? Whats the
solution ?
Danger of Loops
Bridge B
Bridge A
host n
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How do we stop this from happening?
Disconnect one of the bridges? Maybe we want bridge
redundancy in case one bridge fails.
How about applying the spanning tree algorithm.
How is the algorithm applied?
Spanning Tree Algorithm
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Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1d)
The Spanning Tree Protocol
(SPT) is a solution to prevent
loops when forwarding
frames between LANs

The SPT is standardized as
the IEEE 802.1d protocol

The SPT organizes bridges
and LANs as spanning tree in
a dynamic environment
Frames are forwarded only
along the branches of the
spanning tree
Note: Trees dont have loops

Bridge 2
Bridge 5
Bridge 4
Bridge 3
Bridge 1
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Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1d)
Bridges that run the SPT
are called transparent

Bridges exchange
messages to configure
the bridge ( Configuration
Bridge Data Unit or
BPDUs) to build the tree.

Bridge 2
Bridge 5
Bridge 4
Bridge 3
Bridge 1
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Virtual LANs
A virtual LAN, or VLAN, is a logical subgroup within a local
area network that is created via switches and software rather than
by manually moving wiring from one network device to another
Even though the employees and their actual computer
workstations may be scattered throughout the building, LAN
switches and VLAN software can be used to create a network
within a network.
Virtual LAN (VLAN)
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A relatively new standard, IEEE 802.1Q, was designed
to allow multiple devices to intercommunicate and
work together to create a virtual LAN
Instead of sending a technician to a wiring closet to
move a workstation cable from one switch to another,
an 802.1Q-compliant switch can be remotely configured
by a network administrator
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Review of LAN
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What is a VLAN
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Why do we need VLAN
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VLAN Tagging
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IEEE 802.1Q:Features-I
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IEEE 802.1Q:Features-II
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IEEE 802.1Q:Features-III
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IEEE 802.1Q:Features-IV
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Tagging rule
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Tagged Frame Format
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Communications in VLANs
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Metro Ethernet
All information of Metro Ethernet can be found on
The Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF):
A Metro Ethernet is a computer network based on the Ethernet
standard and which covers a metropolitan area. It is commonly
used as a metropolitan access network to connect subscribers
and businesses to a Wide Area Network, such as the Internet.
Large businesses can also use Metro Ethernet to connect
branch offices to their Intranets.

Advantages of Metro Ethernet:
Cost-effective equipment
Easy network management
Fast speed

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1. Match the following to one or more layers of OSI model

(a) interface to transmission media
(b) provides access for the end user
(c) route selection
(d) communicates directly with users application medium
(e) define frames
(f) ensure reliable transmission of data
2. (a) What are the differences between a repeater and a bridge?
(b) What are the differences between a bridge and a router?

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1. Match the following to one or more layers of OSI model

(a) interface to transmission media
( Physical layer)
(b) provides access for the end user
(Application layer)
(c) route selection
(Networking layer)
(d) communicates directly with users application medium
(Application layer)
(e) define frames
(Data link layer)
(f) ensure reliable transmission of data
(Data link and transport layers)
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2. (a) What are the differences between a repeater and a bridge?
(b) What are the differences between a bridge and a router?

Ans: (a) A repeater only operates in physical layer, but a bridge operates
in both physical and data link layers;
A repeater has no filter function, a bridge has filter function.
(b) A bridge connects segments of a LAN, and a router connects LANs
and WANs;
A bridge operates in physical and data link layer and a router
operates in physical, data link and networking layers;
A bridge cannot change the physical address in a packet
A router does