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Real power loss minimization in radial

distribution system by reconfiguration using


queen bee

Network reconfiguration is the process of changing the
topology of distribution systems by altering the
open/closed status of switches.
Open switches are normally called as tie switches.
Closed switches are called as sectionalizing switches.

During normal operating condition, networks are reconfigured
for:
1. To minimize the system real power losses in the network .

During abnormal operating condition, networks are
reconfigured for
1. To supply continuous power to the load even under faulty
condition.
2. To relieve over loads in the feeders.




F = min (P
T,Loss
)------------(1)

where ,
P
T,Loss
- total real power loss of the system.




In every optimization algorithm two conditions has to be
checked for reconfiguration of Radial distribution
system
Radiality
All the load in the system has to be supplied
Read the input data of the given network
Apply distribution load flow procedure to the
network
Apply AI technique for reconfiguration
procedure
Find the optimal configuration and display
the results
33 BUS RADIAL DISTRIBUTION TEST SYSTEM
33 buses
32 branches
3 laterals
5 tie-lines
10
Line
No
Sending
Bus
Receiving
Bus
Resistance
(Ohm)
Reactance
(Ohm)
P
L

(KW)
Q
L

(KVAr)
1 1 2 0.0922 0.0477 100 60
2 2 3 0.4930 0.2511 90 40
3 3 4 0.3660 0.1864 120 80
4 4 5 0.3811 0.1941 60 30
5 5 6 0.8190 0.7070 60 20
6 6 7 0.1872 0.6188 200 100
7 7 8 1.7114 1.2351 200 100
8 8 9 1.0300 0.7400 60 20
9 9 10 1.0400 0.7400 60 20
10 10 11 0.1966 0.0650 45 30
11 11 12 0.3744 0.1238 60 35
INPUT DATA FOR 33-BUS SYSTEM
Line No Sending
Bus
Receiving
Bus
Resistance
(Ohm)
Reactance
(Ohm)
P
L

(KW)
Q
L

(KVAr)
12 12 13 1.4680 1.1550 60 35
13 13 14 0.5416 0.7129 120 80
14 14 15 0.5910 0.5260 60 10
15 15 16 0.7463 05450 60 20
16 16 17 1.2890 1.7210 60 20
17 17 18 0.7320 0.5740 90 40
18 2 19 0.1640 0.1565 90 40
19 19 20 1.5042 1.3554 90 40
20 20 21 0.4095 0.4784 90 40
21 21 22 0.7089 0.9373 90 40
22 3 23 0.4512 0.3083 90 50
Line No Sending
Bus
Receiving
Bus
Resistance
(Ohm)
Reactance
(Ohm)
P
L
(KW)
Q
L
(KVAr)
23 23 24 0.8980 0.7091 420 200
24 24 25 0.8960 0.7011 420 200
25 6 26 0.2030 0.1034 60 25
26 26 27 0.2842 0.1447 60 25
27 27 28 1.0590 0.9337 60 20
28 28 29 0.8042 0.7006 120 70
29 29 30 0.5075 0.2585 200 600
30 30 31 0.9744 0.9630 150 70
31 31 32 0.3105 0.3619 210 100
32 32 33 0.3410 0.5302 60 40
RESULTS FOR BASE CASE LOAD FLOW
Bus No. Voltage Real power(KW) Reactive power(KVAR)
1
1.00334 3917.91 2458.88
2
0.999673 3905.67 2452.55
3
0.984357 3392.61 2205.02
4
0.977662 2342.89 1697.63
5
0.968257 2204.06 1608.04
6
0.94823 2105.85 1528.09
7
0.947799 1093.12 528.131
8
0.941539 888.345 419.836
9
0.934628 684.217 316.87
10
0.928186 620.701 294.377
11
0.927081 560.154 274.196
Bus No. Voltage Real power(KW) Reactive power(KVAR)
12
0.925168 514.283 243.908
13
0.918582 451.649 206.835
14
0.916507 390.93 170.888
15
0.91505 270.578 90.5747
16
0.913568 210.3 80.372
17
0.911711 150.052 60.041
18
0.911059 90 40
19
0.995094 360.979 160.928
20
0.991394 270.145 120.176
21
0.990724 180.044 80.0579
22
0.990143 90 40
Bus No. Voltage Real power(KW) Reactive power(KVAR)
23
0.971975 936.531 455.148
24
0.964742 841.308 401.023
25
0.961132 420 200
26
0.944033 948.222 972.35
27
0.940576 884.888 945.651
28
0.928216 813.569 910.671
29
0.919284 745.729 883.839
30
0.914319 621.823 811.848
31
0.910099 420.226 210.269
32
0.909226 270.013 140.021
33
0.908992 60 40
TOTAL REAL POWER LOSS: 199.1 kw
Generation of bees
Identification of Queen bee
Mating flight or Reproduction
Piping
It is the process of generating bees or solution set.
Here, the bees are generated by simple heuristic
rules.

In general, fitness function F(X) is derived from the
objective function.
The fitness function is defined as
F(X) = f(x) for Max problem
F(X) = 1/f(x) for Min problem , if f(x) 0
F(X) = 1/(1+ f(x)) for Min problem ,if f(x) = 0
where ,f(x) objective function of the problem
Among the generated bees, queen bee is
selected as one which has the best fitness.


The queen bee makes a mating flight for the
reproduction of next generation bees.
Drones: All the bees except Queen Bee
All drones may not fly fast to reach a queen,
hence incorporating a probability of
recombination associated with each drone ( ).
Recombination probability is indicated as .
If , no recombination takes and hence no
offspring.

If , the drones combines with queen bee producing
two virgin queen bees. This is similar to the crossover
operator in standard GA.
Here, two point cross over is used.
In a two point cross over, two random sites are chosen .
If the cross site 1 is three and cross site 2 is six, then the
strings between three and six are exchanged.

cs1 cs2
Parent-1
Parent-2
Strings before mating
cs1 cs2
Child-1
Child-2
1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1
1 0 1 1 1
0
0
1
0 1
0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1
Strings after mating
In a hive, all the virgin queen bees will fight
each other, and the fittest alone survives.
All the virgin queens together with mother
queen bee are once again evaluated and new
queen bee is identified; all other bees are
made drones
3
c b a
Queen
6
5
4 2 1
d e f g h i
j
Virgin Bees + Mother
New Queen Bee + Drones
Stop
Start
No
Yes
Generate n bees randomly
Identify the queen bee using Eq (1)
Mating of queen bee with drones
based on a probability approach
and generation of virgin queen bees
Piping and Identification of
new queen bee using Eq(1)
Formation of
drones of
population
size (n-1)
Is termination
criterion
reached?
Select queen bee as the optimum solution
1. Read the bus data and line data for the distribution
test system.
2. Generate queen bee by heuristic algorithm.
3. Run the load flow and calculate the fitness for the
population.
4. Mating Flight:Perform Mating Flight or
Reproduction (which is similar to cross over
operation in standard GA) by taking two
chromosomes(always one is Queen bee and the
other is drone taken on by one) at a time from the
population. Generate a random number for the
crossover point. Here the two point cross over is
used

5. Once the crossover is over,check the radiality for the off -
springs. If the distribution network has no closed loops and all
the loads were connected, the network is radial.
6. Sort the population and off springs.
7. Piping:Choose the best individuals of population size
according to their fitness. In that,choose the best one as queen
bee for the next iteration.
8. With this new population, repeat the steps 4 to 7 until
maximum iteration is reached.
9. The switch status and voltage at each bus of the minimum
loss configuration are displayed.
10. Stop the process.
SWITCHES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1
0
1
1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1
6
1
7
1
8
19
SWITCHING
STATUS
1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
SWITCHING STATUS AFTER FINAL
RECONFIGURATION
SWITCHE
S
2
0
2
1
2
3
24 2
5
2
6
2
7
2
8
2
9
3
0
3
1
3
2
3
3
3
4
3
5
3
6
3
7
SWITCHIN
G STATUS
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0