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Ali Tariq

TRUTH AND THINKING


Truth is the object of thinking.
Some truths are obvious; others are difficult to
acquire.
Some judgments we make are simple; some
judgments are complicated.
Some arguments, whether made by us or others, may
be straightforward and easily understood; other
arguments may be complex and consist of a series of
smaller arguments, each needing to be critically
examined and evaluated.
CRITICAL THINKING AND LOGIC
Every object of knowledge has a branch of knowledge which studies it.
EXAMPLES:
Planets, stars, and galaxies are studied by astronomy.
Chemistry studies the structure, composition, and properties of material substances
and the transformations they undergo.
The origin, evolution, and development of human society is the object studied by
sociology.
Economics, biology, geography, and grammar all have objects of knowledge which
they investigate, describe, and try to explain.
WHAT ABOUT CRITICAL?
Critical thinking involves knowledge of the science of logic, including the skills of
logical analysis, correct reasoning, and understanding statistical methods.
Critical thinking, however, involves more than just an understanding of logical
procedures.
A good critical thinker must also understand the sources of knowledge, the nature of
knowledge, and the nature of truth.
THE SCIENCE OF LOGIC
The object of knowledge involved in the science of
logic is "thinking," but it is "thinking" approached in
a special way.
Generally speaking, logic is that branch of
knowledge which reflects upon the nature of
"thinking" itself.
But this may confuse logic with other branches of
knowledge which also have the nature of "thinking"
as a part of their specific object of investigation.

THINKING AND LOGIC
Logic doesn't just deal with "thinking" in general. Logic
deals with "correct thinking."
Training in logic should enable us to develop the skills necessary to
think correctly, that is, logically.
A very simple definition would be:
Logic is the subject which teaches you the rules for correct
and proper reasoning.
A more complete and "sophisticated" definition of logic, you can
define it this way:
Logic is the science of those principles, laws, and methods,
which the mind of man in its thinking must follow for the
accurate and secure attainment of truth.
A KIND OF LOGIC: NATURAL LOGIC
Natural Logic" or Common Sense
We all have an internal sense of what is logical and
what is not, which we generally refer to as "common
sense."
This "natural" logic we have learned from the moment
of birth, through our personal experiences in the
world and through our acquisition of language.
A KIND OF LOGIC: SCIENTIFIC LOGIC
Scientific logic is simply our natural logic trained
and developed to expertness by means of well-
established knowledge of the principles, laws,
and methods which underlie the various
operations of the mind in the pursuit of and
attainment of truth.

LOGIC AS A SCIENCE
AND AN ART
Logic as a science:
The science part is the knowledge of the principles, laws, and methods of logic
itself.
Logic as an art:
Logic must be put into action or else the knowledge provided within the science
of logic is of little use.
We can speak of the "art" of logic, that is, the practical application of the
science of logic to our everyday affairs.
Logic as a science and an art
Logic is not intended merely to inform or teach.
It is also a directive and aims at assisting us in the proper use of our power of
reasoning.
In this sense, we can speak of logic as both a science and an art, a practical art
meant to be applied in our ordinary affairs.

Why Study Logic?
Aim: To develop a system of methods and principles
that we may use as criteria for evaluating the
arguments of others and as guides in constructing
arguments of our own.
Benefits: an increase in confidence that we are making
sense when we criticize the arguments of others and
when we advance arguments of our own.
THREE OPERATIONS OF THE MIND
OPERATIONS
OF THE MIND
PRODUCT EXTERNAL
SIGNS
Simple worry Concept / Idea Oral / written
terms
Judgment Mental plan Oral / Written
Proposition or
statement
Reasoning Mental
agreement /
disagreement
Oral / written
argument
Simple Apprehension, Judgment, Reason
Simple Apprehension: an operation of the mind
whereby we abstract from the non-essential elements of
a thing and recognize those essential elements which
make it to be exactly that particular thing.
Judgment: an operation of the mind which unites two
ideas by statement or separates by cancellation.
Reasoning / Mediate Inference: an operation of the
mind that involves a process whereby from certain truths
already known, we proceed to another which is different
from those that are given but necessarily following from
them.
Basic Concept: ARGUMENTS
Argument: a group of statements, one of which (the
conclusion) is claimed to follow from the other or
others (the premises).
Good arguments: those in which the conclusion
really does follow from the premises
Bad arguments: those in which does not, even
though it is claimed to
Basic Concept: Statement
Basis: Argument as a group of statement
Statement: a sentence that is either true or false;
typically a declarative sentence.
Examples:
1. Hydrogen is combustible.
2. World War II began in 1939.
3. Some ducks are fish.
4. Abraham Lincoln was beheaded.
Basic Concept: Truth - Value
Truth value of the statement: the feature by which a
statement is either true or false.
Examples:
1. Hydrogen is combustible. (true)
2. World War II began in 1939. (true)
3. Some ducks are fish. (false)
4. Abraham Lincoln was beheaded. (false)
Basic Concept: Non-Statements
Sentences which cannot be said to be either true
or false.
1. What is the atomic weight of carbon? (question)
2. Lets go to the park today. (proposal)
3. We suggest that you travel by bus. (suggestion)
4. Turn to the left at the next corner. (command)
5. Ouch! (exclamation)
Components of an Argument: Premise(s)
and conclusion
Premises: the statement that set forward the evidence.
Conclusion: the statement that is claimed to follow from
the evidence.
Example:
All cats are animals.
Felix is a cat.
Therefore, Felix is an animal.
the first two statements are the premises; the third is the
conclusion.
The claim that the conclusion follows from the premises is
indicated by the word therefore.
Schema of an Argument:
Statement
Premises Statement Evidence
Statement

Conclusion Statement What is
claimed to
follow from
the evidence
Recognizing Arguments
One of the most important tasks in the analysis of
arguments is being able to distinguish premises from
conclusion.
If what is thought to be a conclusion is really a premise,
and vice versa, the following analysis cannot possibly be
correct.
Frequently, arguments contain certain indicator words
that provide clues in identifying premises and
conclusion.
Conclusion Indicator
A word that provides a clue to identifying a conclusion.
Examples
Therefore hence whence
Wherefore thus consequently
Accordingly so it follows that
Entails that as a result We may conclude
Implies that it must be that We may infer
Whenever a statement follows one of these indicators, it can
usually be identified as the conclusion.
By process of elimination the other statements in the argument
are the premises.
Example: This is pen is out of ink. Consequently, it will not write.

Premise Indicator
A word that provides a clue to identifying a principle.
If an argument does not contain a conclusion indicator, it may
contain a premise indicator.
Examples:
for the reason that in that seeing that
As indicate by for since
Because as inasmuch as
may be inferred from given that owing to
Any statement following one of these indicators can usually be
identified as a premise.
Example: This locket is worth a lot of money, since it is made of
platinum.
Basic Concept: Inference & Proposition
An inference, in the technical sense of the term, is the
reasoning process used to produce an argument.
A proposition, in the technical sense, is the meaning
or information content of a statement.
Passages lacking an inferential claim (1)
Passages lacking an inferential claim contain statements that could be
premises or conclusions (or both) but what is missing is a claim that a
reasoning process is being expressed.
Warnings/ pieces of advice: kinds of discourse aimed at modifying
someones behavior.
Ex. Watch out that you dont slip on the floor.
Ex. I suggest you take philosophy in the first semester.
Each of these could serve as the conclusion of an argument; but in their present
context, there is no claim that they supported or implied by reasons of evidence.
Statements of beliefs or opinion: expressions of what someone
happen to believe or think at a certain time.
Ex. I think a nation such as ours, with its high moral traditions and
commitments, has a further responsibility to know how to became drawn into
this conflict, and to learn the lessons it has to teach us for the future.
Alfred Hassler, Saigon, U.S,A.
Passages lacking an inferential claim (2)
Loosely associated statements: may be about the same general subject, but
they lack a claim that one of them is proved by the others.
Ex. Not to honor men of worth will keep the people from contention; not
to value goods that are hard to come by will keep them from theft; not to
display what is desirable will keep them from being unsettled of mind.
Lao-Tzu, Thoughts from the Tao Te Ching
Report: consists of a group of statements that convey information about some
situation or event. Ex. News Report
Expository passage: a kind of discourse that begins with a topic sentence
followed by one or more sentences that develop the topic sentence.
Illustration: consists of a statement about certain subject combined with a
reference to one or more specific instances intended to exemplify that
statement.
Ex. Chemical elements, as well as compounds, can be represented by
molecular formulas. Thus, oxygen is represented by O
2
, sodium chloride
by NaCl, and sulfuric acid by H
2
SO
4
.

Conditional Statements
A conditional statement is an if then statement.
Ex. If it rains, the soil is wet.
It is made up of two component statements: if = antecedent;
then = consequent
Occasionally, then is left out
Conditional statements are not arguments because there is no claim
that either the antecedent or the consequent presents evidence.
In other words, there is no assertion that either the antecedent or the
consequent is true. Rather, there is only the assertion that if the
antecedent is true, then so is the consequent.
A conditional statement may serve as premise or the conclusion
of an argument.
Explanations
An explanation consists of a statement or a group of statements
intended to shed light on some phenomenon that is usually accepted as
a matter of fact.
Ex. Cows can digest grass, while humans cannot, because their
digestive systems contain enzymes not found in humans.
2 parts:
Explanandum: the statement that describes the event or
phenomenon to be explained.
Explanans: the statement or group of statements that purports to do
the explaining.
Explanations are sometimes mistaken for arguments because they
often contain the indicator word because. Yet explanations are not
arguments for the following reason: In an explanation, the explanans is
intended to show why something is the case, whereas in an argument
the premises are intended to prove that something is the case.
SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
Argument
Accepted
facts

Claimed
To prove

Explanation


Claimed to
shed light on

Accepted
fact
Premises
Conclusion
Explanans
Explanandum