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Quantity Cookery

Chapter 16:
Bakeshop Production
Chapter 17:
Dairy Products and Eggs
Introduction
Good hot breads and desserts are appreciated by
patrons and can do much to draw business.
Sweet breads, muffins, or rolls enhance a
breakfast; and baked desserts provides an
excellent conclusion to a meal. Many operations
try to emphasize bakery products because of
their appeal and profitability
On the other hand, Dairy products consist of milk
and its products are among our most nutritious
foods. They are excellent source of calcium and
phosphorus
Ingredients
Flour
Shortening
Sugar
Leavening Agents
Eggs
Liquids
Flavorings and Spices
Flour
In baking, flour can be defined as a
ground starch product that is used to
give structure and body to bakery
products.
Gluten
Bread (Hard-Wheat) Flour
Pastry (Soft-Wheat) Flour
All-Purpose Flour
Gluten
Flour protein is called Gluten. It can
absorb twice its own weight in moisture.
Moistened gluten is sticky, and in a
batter of dough it forms a thin gummy,
stringy mass that can stretch out, giving
elasticity to the mixture. Working a
dough or batter forms a network of
gluten throughout the mixture. Baking
firms this network and helps support the
baked items
Bread (Hard-Wheat) Flour
Wheat flour is the most important
ingredient in the bakeshop.
In baked products, wheat flour
provides:
Structure
Thickening
Nutritive value

Wheat Varieties
Hard wheats contain greater quantities
of the proteins glutenin and gliadin,
and are used to produce strong flours.
Strong flours are used to make breads
and yeast products.
Soft wheats are used to produce weak
flours often used in cakes, cookies, and
pastries.

Wheat Varieties
The six principal classes of wheat grown
in North America are:
Hard red winter
Hard red spring
Hard white
Soft white
Soft red winter
Durum

Composition of Wheat
Bran is the hard outer covering of the
kernel. It is present in whole wheat
flour and is high in fiber, B vitamins,
fat, protein, and minerals.
Germ is the part of the kernel that
becomes a new wheat plant if
sprouted. It is high in protein,
vitamins, minerals, and fat.
Endosperm is the white, starchy part
of the kernel that remains when the
bran and germ are removed.

Flour Grades
Patent flour
Clear flour
Straight flour

Extraction refers to the amount of flour
milled from a given amount of grain. It
is expressed as a percentage of the
total amount of grain.

Composition of Flour
Starch: white flour consists of about 68-76%
starch.
Protein: 6 to 18% of white flour is protein.
Glutenin and gliadin are 80% of that protein.
Moisture: 11 to 14%
Gums: pentosans 2 to 3%
Fats: 1%
Ash: mineral content of flour 0.3 to 1.5%
Pigments: carotenoids, orange-yellow.

Types of Patent Flour
Bread flour
Cake flour
High gluten flour
Pastry flour

Bread Flour
Cake Flour Pastry Flour
Other Wheat Flours
All purpose flour
Durum flour
Self rising flour
Whole wheat flour
Bran flour
Cracked wheat

Other Flours, Meals, Starches
Rye
Corn
Spelt
Oats
Buckwheat

Soy
Rice
Starches
Cornstarch
Waxy maize
Instant

Shortening
Are the general term for lard, butter,
margarine, shortening and oil.
They provide color, add moisture and
richness.
They also assist with leavening, help extend
shelf life and produce tender baked goods.
With proper mixing fat particles are
distributed evenly causing fat and liquid to
emulsify.

Shortenings: any of a group of solid fats, usually
white and tasteless, that are especially formulated
for baking (shortens gluten strands).
High ratio shortenings: devised for use in making
cake batters that contain a high ratio of sugar.
High Ratio Liquid Shortenings.
Butter: Adds flavor and melts in the mouth at body
temperature.
Margarine: manufactured from various animal and
vegetable fats plus flavoring, emulsifiers, and coloring.
Oils.
Lard: rendered fat from hogs.

The major function of fats in
baked items are:
To tenderize gluten.
To add moistness and richness.
To increase keeping quality.
To add flavor.
To assist in leavening when used as a
creaming agent.
To add flakiness.

Butter is the fatty substance produced by agitating cream.
Butter contains at least 80% milkfat and may or may not
contain salt.
It comes in many forms:
Salted butter
Salt was added during production
European butter
Several butters are in Europe with produced Protected geographical
indications
Beurre d'Ardenne is a type of cow's milk Butter made in
the Ardennes of Belgium.
Beurre d'Isigny from France
Whipped butter
Clarified butter or ghee
is milk fat rendered from butter to separate the milk solids and water
from the butterfat

Milk Products and Production
Relationship
Sugars and Sweeteners
Are carbohydrates
Add sweetness and flavor.
Create tenderness and fineness of texture.
Give crust color.
Increase keeping qualities.
Act as a creaming agent with fats.
Act as a foaming agent with eggs.
Provide food for yeast.
Are classified as either:
Simple or single
Complex or double
Forms of Sugars
Turbinado
Sanding
Granulated
Brown
Superfine or caster
Powdered
Fructose
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