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Dr.

Nasim Zafar
Electronics 1
EEE 231 BS Electrical Engineering
Fall Semester 2012
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Virtual campus
Islamabad

Bipolar Junction Transistors-BJTs

Lecture No: 14
Contents:
Introduction
Bipolar Transistor Currents
Bipolar Transistor Characteristics and Parameter
Early Effect




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References:
Microelectronic Circuits:
Adel S. Sedra and Kenneth C. Smith.

Electronic Devices :
Thomas L. Floyd ( Prentice Hall ).

Integrated Electronics
Jacob Millman and Christos Halkias (McGraw-Hill).

Electronic Devices and Circuit Theory:
Robert Boylestad & Louis Nashelsky ( Prentice Hall ).

Introductory Electronic Devices and Circuits:
Robert T. Paynter.

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Reference:
Chapter 4 Bipolar Junction Transistors:

Figures are redrawn (with some modifications) from

Electronic Devices
By
Thomas L. Floyd
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Bipolar Junction Transistors

BJTs-Circuits
B
C
E
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Transistor Types
MOS - Metal Oxide Semiconductor
FET - Field Effect Transistor
BJ T - Bipolar J unction Transistor

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Transistor Current Characteristics
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An Overview of Bipolar Transistors:
While control in a FET is due to an electric field.
Control in a bipolar transistor is generally considered to be due
to an electric current.
current into one terminal
determines the current
between two others
as with an FET, a
bipolar transistor
can be used as a
control device
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Transistor Biasing Configurations:


1. Common-Base Configuration (CB) :
input = V
EB
& I
E
; output = V
CB
& I
C

2. Common-Emitter Configuration (CE):
input = V
BE
& I
B
; output = V
CE
& I
C


3. Common-Collector Configuration (CC):
input = V
BC
& I
B
; output = V
EC
& I
E



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Operation Modes:
Active:
Most importance mode, e.g. for amplifier operation.
The region where current curves are practically flat.
Saturation:
Barrier potential of the junctions cancel each other out
causing a virtual short.
Ideal transistor behaves like a closed switch.
Cutoff:
Current reduced to zero
Ideal transistor behaves like an open switch.
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V
CE
(V)
I
C
(mA)
I
B
= 50 A
I
B
= 0
30
5 10 15 20 0
0
I
B
= 100 A
I
B
= 150 A
I
B
= 200 A
22.5
15
7.5
Saturation Region
Active Region
Cutoff Region
Operation Modes:
Active: BJT acts like an amplifier (most common use).
Saturation: BJT acts like a short circuit.
Cutoff: BJT acts like an open circuit.
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Common Emitter Characteristics:


We consider DC behaviour and assume that we are
working in the normal linear amplifier regime with
the BE junction forward biased and the CB junction
reverse biased.
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Common-Emitter Output Characteristics
V
CE
I
C
Active
Region
I
B
Saturation Region
Cutoff Region
I
B
=0
Region of
Operation
Description
Active Small base current
controls a large
collector current
Saturation V
CE(sat)
~ 0.2V,
V
CE
increases with I
C
Cutoff Achieved by reducing
I
B
to 0, Ideally, I
C
will
also equal 0.
Output Characteristic Curves - (V
c
- I
c

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Common-Base-Configuration (CBC)
NPN Transistor
Circuit Diagram: NPN Transistor
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Common-Base Output Characteristics:
Although the Common-Base configuration is not the most common
configuration, it is often helpful in understanding the operation of BJT
Output Characteristic Curves - (V
c
- I
c

S
a
t
u
r
a
t
i
o
n

R
e
g
i
o
n

I
E
I
C

V
CB
Active Region
Cutoff
I
E
= 0
0.8V 2V 4V 6V 8V
mA
2
4
6
I
E
=1mA
I
E
=2mA
Breakdown Region
)
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16
Transistor Currents - Output characteristics:
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Common-Collector Output Characteristics:
Emitter-Current Curves
V
CE
I
E
Active
Region
I
B
Saturation Region
Cutoff Region
I
B
= 0
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Bipolar Transistor Characteristics
Behaviour can be described by the current
gain, h
fe
or by the transconductance, g
m
of the
device
21.4
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Conventional View & Current Components:
NPN Transistor-CEC
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Current Components:
NPN Transistor-CEC
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BJT Characteristics and Parameters
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BJT-Current Gain Parameters:
Two quantities of great importance in the characterization of
transistors are the so-called common-base current gain o..

and the so-called common-emitter gain |.
DC | and DC o
| = Common-emitter current gain
o = Common-base current gain

Note: o and | are sometimes referred to as o
dc
and |
dc

because the relationships being dealt within the BJT are DC.

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BJT-Current Gain Parameters:
Common-base current gain o , is also referred to as h
FB
and
is defined by:

o = h
FB
= I
C
/ I
E

Common-emitter current gain , is also referred as h
FE
and
is defined by:
| = I
C
/I
B

Thus:




B C I I ~
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Beta (|) or amplification factor:

The ratio of dc collector current (IC) to the dc base current
(IB) is dc beta (|dc ) which is dc current gain where IC and
IB are determined at a particular operating point, Q-point
(quiescent point).
Its define by the following equation:
30 < |dc < 300 2N3904

On data sheet, |
dc
=h
FE
with h is derived from ac hybrid
equivalent circuit. FE are derived from forward-current
amplification and common-emitter configuration
respectively.



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In the dc mode the level of I
C
and I
E
due to the majority
carriers are related by a quantity called alpha:
o=

I
C
= oI
E
+ I
CBO
It can then be summarize to I
C
= oI
E
(ignore I
CBO
due to
small value)

For a.c situations where the point of operation moves on the
characteristics curve, an a.c alpha defined by



Alpha a common base current gain factor that shows the
efficiency by calculating the current percent from current
flow from emitter to collector. The value of o is typical from
0.9 ~ 0.998.
E
C
I
I
E
C
I
I
A
A
=
o
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BJT-Current Gain Parameters:
T
BE
V
V
S C
e I i =
T
BE
V
V
S
E
e
I
i
o
=
E
C
i
i
= o
o = Common-Base Current Gain (typical 0.99)
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BJT-Current Gain Parameters:
T
BE
V
V
S C
e I i =
T
BE
V
V
S
B
e
I
i
|
=
B
C
i
i
= |
| = Common-emitter current gain (10-1000; typical 50-200)
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DC | and DC o
o
o
|

=
1
1 +
=
|
|
o
| = Common-emitter current gain (10-1000; typical 50-200)
o = Common-base current gain (0.9-0.999; typical 0.99)
The relationship between the two parameters are:
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Performance Parameters for PNP:
Common emitter dc current gain, |
dc
:
B dc C
I I | =
B
dc
dc
C
B C dc E dc C
1
) (
I I
I I I I
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
+ = =
o
o
o o
But,
o
o
o
o
|
T
T
dc
dc
dc
1 1
=

=
Note that | is large (e.g. | = 100)
For NPN transistor, similar analysis can be carried out. However,
the emitter current is mainly carried by electrons.
Example:
. etc
EN EP
EP
I I
I
+
=
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Performance Parameters for PNP:
Emitter efficiency:
E
EP
EN EP
EP
I
I
I I
I
=
+
=
Fraction of emitter current carried by holes.
We want close to 1.
Base transport factor:
Ep
C
T
I
I
=
Fraction of holes collected by the collector.
We want o
T
close to 1.
Common base dc current gain:
E dc E T EP T C
I I I I o = o = o =
o o
T dc
=
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Example: NPN Common-Base Configuration:

+
_
+
_
Given: I
B
= 50 A , I
C
= 1 mA

Find: I
E
, | , and o

Solution:
I
E
= I
B
+ I
C
= 0.05 mA + 1 mA = 1.05 mA
| = I
C
/ I
B
= 1 mA / 0.05 mA = 20
o = I
C
/ I
E
= 1 mA / 1.05 mA = 0.95238
I
C
I
E
I
B
V
CB
V
BE
E

C

B

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