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An Introduction to

What is wifi?
Wifi standards
How a wifi network works
Wifi network element
Wifi security
Advantages and limitations
Future of wifi

What is Wi-Fi..
Wi-Fi is the name of popular Wireless networking
technology that uses Radio Waves to provide wireless
speed Internet and Network connections.

It is technology that allows an electronic
device to exchange data or connect to the
internet wirelessly using radio waves.
The term "Wi-Fi" is used
in general English as a
synonym for

If you've been in an

Airport, Coffee shop,
recently, chances are you've been right
in the middle of a

Wireless network.
Wi-Fi Technology

The technology used in Wi-Fi is easiest to understand in terms of
radio. It is quite similar to walkie-talkies, the only difference
being in the strength of signals.

Wi-fi is based on IEEE 802.11 standard
802.11 is the generic name of a family of standards for wireless
There are many versions of Wi-Fi radios currently

802.11a transmits at 5 GHz and
can move up to 54 megabits of data
per second.
It also uses orthogonal frequency-
division multiplexing (OFDM), a
more efficient coding technique This
greatly reduces interference.

802.11b is the slowest and
least expensive standard. For a
while, its cost made it popular,
but now it's becoming less
common as faster standards
become less expensive.
802.11b transmits in the 2.4
GHz frequency band of the
radio spectrum. It can handle
up to 11 megabits of data
per second, and it uses
complementary code
keying (CCK) modulation to
improve speeds.

How a Wi-Fi works.
Wi-Fi works with no physical wired connection between
sender and receiver by using radio frequency (RF)
In fact, communication across a wireless network is a lot
like two-way radio communication. Here's what
A wireless router receives the signal from internet,
using a physical, wired Ethernet connection. The
router translates data into a radio signal and transmits
it using an antenna.

A computer's wireless adapter receives the data and
decode it.

Network Elements
Access Point (AP)/Base station - The AP is a
wireless LAN transceiver or base station that can connect
one or many wireless devices simultaneously to the
A single access point can support up to 30 users and can
function within a range of 100 up to 300 feet.

Wireless hosts - They accept the wireless signal and
relay information. They can be internal and external.(e.g
PCMCIA Card for Laptop and PCI Card for Desktop PC)

Safeguards - Firewalls and anti-virus software protect
networks from uninvited users and keep information

Range of Wi-Fi
They transmit at frequencies of 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz. This
frequency is considerably higher than the frequencies
used for cell phones, walkie-talkies and televisions. The
higher frequency allows the signal to carry more data
A WiFi hotspot is simply an area with an accessible
wireless network.

The term is most often used to refer to wireless
networks in public areas like airports
and coffee shops.

Some are free and some require fees for use, but in
either case they can be handy when you are on the
Free hotspots operate in two ways:

An open public network is the
easiest way to create a free Hotspot. All
that is needed is a Wi-Fi router.
Closed public networks use a HotSpot Management
System to control the HotSpot. With this software, operators
can authorize only specific users to access the Internet, and they
often associate the free access to a menu or to a purchase limit.

Advantages of Wi-Fi
Ease of Installation
Use unlicensed part of the radio spectrum

Speed: Slower than cable
Interference: Compared to wired systems, wireless
networks are frequently subject to electromagnetic
interference. This can be caused by other networks or
other types of equipment that generate radio waves that
are within, or close, to the radio bands used for
communication. Interference can degrade the signal or
cause the system to fail.
High power consumption
Limited range

Wi-Fi is one of the fastest growing
technologies. The Demand for
connecting devices without the use
of cables is increasing everywhere.
Wi-Fi can be found on colleges
campus, offices,& in many public