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Introduction to GU SDR
Base Stations
GU Product Support Dept.
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2014/5/19 2
Purpose
2014/5/19 2
You are expected to master the following
knowledge after this course
basic concepts and structure of SDR
Types of SDR base stations
SDR hardware boards
Interfaces of SDR base stations

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Contents
Basic Concepts of SDR
Structure of SDR Base Stations
Introduction to BBU
Introduction to RU/RRU
Introduction to Interface between BBU and RU/RRU
Special Functions of SDR Base Stations
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What is SDR (1)
The radio technologies defined by the SDR forum are classified
into five levels: HR, SCR, SDR, ISR and USR.
HR hardware radio Tier0. For example, the traditional
single-mode base station.
SCRsoftware choose radio
Feature: Single-mode base transceiver stations of different
modes can be placed together, but they are integrated in terms
of software.



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What is SDR (2)
SDR- Software Defined Radio: you can use the software to
select a demodulation mode, broadband signals or narrowband
signals. ZTE ZDR base station series leads the technologies in
the industry.
Feature: Different radio modes can share hardware, including
RF front end, ADC/DAC and base band processing.
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What is SDR (3)
ISRIdea software radio.
Feature: 1) get rid of the analog RF front end; 2) the whole system can be
controlled by programming except the antenna.
USRUltimate software radio
Feature: 1) it has the function of the ISR; 2) the controlling software should
be standardized. Switch between different radio modes can be finished within
milliseconds.
The ISR cannot be widely used because the technology is not mature.
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What is SDR (4)
SDR and cognitive radio
Cognitive radio is an
important technology of
USR. It can perceive the
surroundings, and adjust
the wireless bandwidth
and de-modulation mode
accordingly.
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Contents
Basic concepts of SDR
Structure of SDR Base Stations
Introduction to BBU
Introduction to RU/RRU
Introduction to Interface between BBU and RU/RRU
Special Functions of SDR Base Stations
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SDR technology brings changes to base station structure
Significant feature of the SDR software defined radio mode
1 The RF front end processes
signals of multiple radio modes
2 Baseband processes signals
of multiple radio modes
3 Software integration to
unify software versions
SDR technology
the system supports
multiple radio modes
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Market drives changes to the base station structure
Green base
station
Cut cost
Structure
A B
Compatible
D
Wireless
integration,
IP technology
C
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Structure of ZTE SDR base station
Support the distributed structure of BBU and RRU. For
traditional base stations, BBU and RRU should be in the same
module.
Multi-mode base band pool BBU
Multi-mode RF platform
Adopt IP technology to process internal data stream of the base
station
OMC platformOMCR and OMCB
Unified software platform
The distributed structure of BBU and RRU and R&D on a unified
platform are the core of the SDR base stations. The new structure
meets the demand and technology required by the market.
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ANT
Transceiver
Front end of Rx
Duplex
Multi-
carrier PA
External power
PWS
220VAC
RRU/RU



BBU
Resource
control board
BBU baseband pool
Fiber
SDR product structure
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SDR product architecture
Distributed base station: RF is distributed remotely
RRU
BBU
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SDR product architecture
Macro base station: BBU and RU are all in the cabinet, which is
different from the distributed base station in structure.
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Advantage 1 of the SDR architecture BBU and
RRU can be distributed separately
In this mode, both BBU and RRU and maximize their
efficiency. BBU can achieve the maximum integration,
and RRU can focus on the power of itself.
The networking is flexible if the RRU is distributed
remotely. For example, it can support multi-carrier and
indoor distributed coverage.
BBU and RRU can be distributed flexibly, which benefit
for compatibility design.
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Advantage 2 of the SDR architecture baseband hardware
Support multiple radio modes
Simple design
Powerful processing capability
Easy to manage
Easy to share resources
Cut cost
Easy for evolution of baseband technologies

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Advantage 3 of the SDR architecture independent RF unit
Simplified functions
Improved reliability, easy for maintenance
Improved the efficiency of the power amplifier
Optimized heat design, easy for integration
Closer to antenna, hence bigger power
Flexible forms of RU/RRU products
Help to reduce the size and weight of base stations
Cut cost


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Advantage 4 of the SDR architecture unified interface between
BBU and RU/RRU
The interface between BBU and RU/RRU is the exclusive
interface for communication between BBU and RU/RRU .
The interface between BBU and RU/RRU supports such radio
modes as GSM, WCDMA, TD-SCDMA, etc.
Support fiber interface and electrical interface
Support 1.2288Gbps and 2.4576Gbps rate
Support both star-type and link-type networking between BBU
and RU/RRU
Support RU/RRU cascading-connection
RRU can be distributed remotely. BBU should keep 40 km
away from RRU.
GERAN evolvement has been taken into consideration in the
design of the interface between BBU and RU/RRU.

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Distributed base station: B8200R8860
B8200: powerful BBU
It supports 60 GSM carriers, and support both GSM and
WCDMA.
R8860: dual mode RRU, broadband transceiver
It supports GSM single-mode 6-carrier, or WCDMA single-mode
3-sector, or supports both radio modes at the same time.
ZXSDR BBU
ZXSDR RRU
RF
MS
Um
interface
CPRI
Fiber
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Indoor dual-mode macro base station ZXSDR BS8800
Size: main cabinet 950600450 mm
extension cabinet 700600450 mm
Weight: main cabinet 150Kg
extension cabinet 130Kg
Power: S12/12/12: 1335W
S6/6/6: 825W
Input voltage: -48VDC (-40~ -57VDC)
Transmission mode: the Abis interface supports 8 E1/T1 links
and 1 GE port.
Maximum site configuration: S12/12/12 or O36
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The structure of ZXSDR BS8800
Main cabinet
1650m
m
450 mm
600mm
PDM

Cabling trough

Baseband

950m
m
PDM

Cabling trough

RF unit

Extension cabinet
Fan
RU unit

Heat discharge unit
Ventilation hole


Heat discharge unit
Ventilation hole


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BBU: baseband unit, which is the same with B8200.
It can contain at most 2 sets of BBU.
RU02: GSM single-mode RF unit
It supports 2 GSM carriers. The BS8800 cabinet can contain 6 RU02
modules. The transmitting power is 20W/40W.
RU60: GU dual mode RF unit. The core part is the same with that of
R8860. It supports 6 GSM carriers or 3 UMTS cells or GU dual-mode
configuration. Cabinet-top transmitting power is 60W.
RU80: GU dual mode RU unit. It is an upgraded version based on
RU60. Cabinet-top transmitting power is 80W.
Indoor dual mode macro base station ZXSDR BS8800
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BS8800 is developed on ZTEs unified platform. The rack
includes the physical cabinet, PDM unit and FAN unit.
BBU and the RU modules all adopt48V DC power supply.
All of the RU modules have the same size and outline.
The fan rotation speed can be adjusted by the software
according to different heat discharge requirements for
different RU modules, thus to lower down noises and achieve
energy efficient.
BS8800 has been used in the products of the three radio
modes, such as GSM, CDMA and UMTS.
Indoor dual mode macro base station ZXSDR BS8800
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Size: 1700600600 mm
Weight: 263Kg
Power: S12/12/12: 1886W
S6/6/6: 1261W
Input voltage: -48VDC (-40~ -57VDC)
Transmission mode: the Abis interface supports 8 E1/T1 links
and 1 GE port.
Maximum site configuration: S12/12/12 or O36

Outdoor dual mode macro base station ZXSDR BS8900
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The structure of ZXSDR BS8900
Baseband/power cabinet
Power cabinet
Horizontal RF cabinet
Vertical RF
cabinet
Different sub-cabinets can compose BS8900
of different forms
Except the vertical RF cabinet, the other sub-
cabinets have the same size.
Used to put BBU and power module
6U or 12U reserved space
Can contain 300AH
battery
Can contain 6 RU modules, or
3 RU modules+150AH battery
Nature heat discharge
3 RU modules
150AH battery
Nature heat
discharge
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The structure of ZXSDR BS8900
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Software architecture of the SDR base station OMC software
OMCB OMCR
BSC RNC
SDR
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Software architecture of the SDR base station OMC software 2
OMCB is an operation and maintenance unit to manage NodeB in
3GPP. ZTEs SDR base stations support both radio modes of GSM
and WCDMA. Connection mode of the traditional base station: OMCR-
>BSC->BTS; Connection mode of the SDR: OMCB->BTS, OMCR-
>BSC->BTS.
According to the management mode of WCDMA, the board
management, configuration, software downloading and alarms are all
managed by OMCB. In case of the dual-mode, operation and
maintenance tasks of GSM are moved to OMCB, and OMCR manages
GSM related radio configuration and status management.
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Software architecture of the SDR base station OMC software 3
OMCR connects to BTS through BSC, regardless the link status
between BSC and BTS. OMCR sends data to BSC, who then
synchronizes the data to BTS.
OMCB is different from OMCR. OMCB interacts with SDR through IP
links. The interaction between OMCB and SDR may pass or not pass
through BSC/RNC. OMCB and SDR confirm data transmission only,
and BSC/RNC needs not to make confirmation. Physically, OMCB can
interact with SDR through IP routes provided by BSC/RNC.
For dual-mode sites, some OMCB connects with BSC, and some
OMCB connects with RNC. BSC/RNC then connects with SDR
through IP transmission.
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Software architecture of the SDR base station OMC software 4
OMCB and OMCR can share the same server or board, but they are
two different programs and there is no direct interaction between them.
Hence, it is necessary to guarantee data consistent manually.
Theoretically, the basic board information is configured on OMCB, and
the logic information is configured on OMCR. If data are inconsistent
between them, we will take the data on OMCB as the reference data.
The main control board of the SDR will keep a copy of all configuration
data of the OMCB. Hence, the data takes effect directly when the SDR
starts, without direct interaction between the SDR and OMCB. Then,
the SDR creates a link to BSC and requests for radio parameters, and
BSC sends the data except configuration information of OMCB to the
SDR. Thus, a complete data configuration table is generated. That is a
theoretic process. In practice, it is necessary to modify the data
configuration. For example, modify radio parameters for expansion
projects. Data configuration of OMCB should be compatible with that of
OMCR, otherwise, the SDR cannot respond correctly.
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Introduction to the control panel of the SDR platform
Abis interface: connect to iBSC by FE or E1
FE: direct transmission by IP directly. The protocol stack is shown in
the below figure on the left.
E1: transmission by IP Over E1. The protocol stack is shown in the
below figure on the right.
SCTP
IP
ETH
SCTP
IP
PPP
HDLC MAC
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Media plane of the SDR
The media plane supports transmission by the RTP protocol
The UBPG of SDR and the BIPB of iBSC process RTP data of the
user plane.
CC is responsible for forwarding messages inside the BBU and over
the Abis interface.
CC
UBPG RRU FS iBSC
Forwarding
RTP
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Contents
Basic Concepts of SDR
Structure of SDR Base Stations
Introduction to BBU
Introduction to RU/RRU
Introduction to Interface between BBU and RU/RRU
Special Functions of SDR Base Stations
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Unified hardware platform UTCA
uTCA (Micro Telecommunications Computing Architecture ) is a
simplified version (Micro TCA) of ATCA (Advanced
Telecommunications Computing Architecture). ATCA and MicroTCA
provide various components of different interfaces, different
protocols and different performances for switching. It is a standard
and open structure.
ATCA mainly orients to the environment requiring high-capacity and
high-performance, while uTCA orients to the environment requiring
low-capacity and low-performance. uTCA is cost effective and
volume sensitive. uTCA inherits many features of ATCA, including
basic interconnection topology and management structure.
PCI Industrial Computer Manufactures Group (PICMG for short), is
an organization which has over 800 member companies, including
Intel, Motorola, and ZTE.
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Hardware structure
Cabinet
- 19 inch
- 2U
Flexible installation mode
- Mounted on the wall
independently
- 19 inch standard cabinet
- Installed in the Hub cabinet
- Installed in the outdoor
cabinet

15
4 8
16
3 7
14
2 6
13
1 5
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Hardware boards
Control and clock module (CC)
Fabric switching module (FS)(3 or 4 slot)
Site alarm module (SA)(13
th
slot)
Baseband processing board (BPC/UBPG)(umts/gsm)(3 or 4)
Fan array module (FA)(controled by CC)
Power module (PM)(1+1)
Backplane board (BB)(CC make managements through BB)

PW FS BP
PW FS BP

SA
CC BP
CC BP
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Hardware interfaces
E1: supports 16 E1/T1 links at most
GE: there are two GE interfaces. One is photo-electric
exclusively, and the other is electric.
CPRI: One FS has 6 CPRI interfaces. There are two FS
at most, hence there are 12 CRPI interfaces at most.
GPS1

CPRI
GE E1

GE
GPS
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Hardware function module CC
Integrate such functions as main control, clock, switching and the
Iub/Abis interface
Physically, the CC does not provide the E1/T1 interface. It connects
E1/T1 to the SA through the backplane of BBU, and the SA provides
the E1/T1 interface.
Support the master/slave mode
Full IP transmission
CC0: It supports internal or external GPS, clock cascaded connection,
and 16 E1 links. It does not support 2MBits clock.
CC2: It does not support internal or external GPS and clock cascaded
connection. It supports 2MBits clock and 8 E1 links.
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Hardware function module FS
It supports the master/slave mode and the load sharing function.
The slot for FS is also compatible for the baseband board.
6 1.25G CPRI optical ports, which support 24TRX (GSM) or
4CS (WCDMA) each.
It does not support master/slave switchover.
For GU dual mode N+6M<=24 (N represents number of
TRXs, and M represents number of CSs)
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Diagram of FS IQ switching
F
S
U
B
P
G
2
Channel 2
Channel 1
RU1, channel 1
RU1, channel 4
RU1, channel 5
RU1, channel 3
RU1, channel 2
RU1, channel 6
U
B
P
G
1
RU1, channel 1
RU1, channel 4
RU1, channel 3
RU1, channel 2
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Hardware function module SA/SE
Environment monitoring module
Fan monitor
SA: support 8 channels of E1/T1 signals, 1 RS232 serial port or
1 RS485 interface, 6 input dry contact alarm, and 2 double-
directional dry contact alarm
SE: support 8 channels of E1/T1 signals, 1 RS232 serial port or
1 RS485 interface, 6 input dry contact alarm, and 2 double-
directional dry contact alarm
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Hardware function module UBPG
GSM baseband processing module
Responsible for baseband modulation. Downlink: processing up
to 12 carriers, speed adaption, channel coding and interleaving,
encryption; producing TDMA burst pulse, GMSK/8PSK
modulation; outputting IQ baseband digital signals; sending
power and frequency control information to RRU for processing.
Responsible for baseband modulation. Uplink: process up to 12
carriers; after receiving IQ baseband data from RRU, perform
diversity combination for the receiver, digital demodulation
(GMSK and 8PSK demodulation, balance), decryption, de-
interleaving, channel decoding and speed adaption, and then
sends to the CC board through the Ethernet port.
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Hardware function module FA
Fan monitoring module
Power supply, rotation control and status report
LEDs on the fan subrack
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Hardware function module PM
A single PM provides 16 12V-power supply, which can meet the
power supply requirement of B8200 in full configuration.
Two PMs working in master/slave mode

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Hardware function module backplane
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BBU configuration rules
Board Configurations
Power module (PM) 1 PM is configured by default. Decide whether it is necessary to
configure 2 PMs according to the requirement for reliability and cost.
Site alarm module (SA) 1 SA is configured by default.
Control and clock module (CC) 1 CC is configured by default. Select either CC0 or CC2 according to
the clock and E1. Decide whether it is necessary to configure 2 CCs
according to the requirement for reliability and cost.
Fabric switch module (FS) Generally, 1 FS is configured, and 2 FSs at most. The quantity
depends on site configuration.
Universal baseband processing
board for GSM (UBPG)
The quantity depends on site configuration.
The slots are compatible for both the BPC and the UBPG.
Baseband processing board
type C (BPC)
The quantity depends on site configuration.
The slots are compatible for both the BPC and the UBPG.
Fan array module (FA) 1 FA only is configured
Site alarm extension board
(SE)
Optional, which depends on the quantity of dry contacts.
It is inserted at Slot 5.
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Contents
Basic Concepts of SDR
Structure of SDR Base Stations
Introduction to BBU
Introduction to RU/RRU
Introduction to Interface between BBU and RU/RRU
Special Functions of SDR Base Stations
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Multi-carrier RU/RRU (1)
The multi-carrier RF modules include three types:
RU60 (60W) , R8860 (60W), and RU80 (80W).
RU/RRU uses multi-carrier technology. IT performs
signal synthesis for multiple carriers. It uses only
one set of boards and PA, and one set of antenna
system. RU60 supports signal synthesis for 6
carriers.
The RU/RRU module has only two external
antenna ports. It supports single-transmitting and
double receiving generally. If the cell has over 6
carriers, one port should be reserved to connect
the other RU.
RU/RRU adopts broadband transceiver and
broadband power amplifier.
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Multi-carrier RU/RRU (2)
RU/RRU is responsible for functions of the
baseband RF interface and the Uu/Um interface.
RU/RRU is responsible for access and radio link
transmission of UE/MS through the Uu/Um
interface, including RF processing,
modulation/demodulation, measurement and report,
power control, receiving diversity, correction,
synchronization, etc.
It connects to BBU through the optical interface by
the CPRI protocol. It implements the following
functions through the optical interface, such as IQ
data transmission, measurement report, RF function
configuration, clock synchronization, etc.
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Multi-carrier RU/RRU (3)
R8840: 2100M UMTS single mode, cabinet-top transmitting
power: 60w, supporting 4CS (actually, 3CSs are configured to
meet the requirement of 20w/CS.)
R8860: support 850M/900MGU dual-mode or 1800M/1900M
single mode. Cabinet top: 80w (GMSK), supporting 24TRX or
4CS or 2W+2G or 1W+4G
R8880: 2100M UMTS single mode; cabinet-top output power:
260w, supporting MIMO (2T2R) and 4CS
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Multi-carrier RU/RRU (4)
R8840: support -48VDC, 110VAC, 220VAC
R8860: support -48VDC. It does not support AC power supply
R8880: support -48VDC, 110VAC, 220VAC
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RU/RRU configuration rules
RRU supports at most 4-level cascaded connection. In practice,
however, it is suggested to adopt only 2-level cascaded connection
in networking.
For RRUs in cascaded connection, there is no limit to the position,
sequence, frequency band, and radio mode.
RRUs of different bands share neither antennas nor feeders.
If a backbone physical site (iron tower) is installed with over 3 sets of
RRU, it is necessary to configure 1 BBU nearby the iron tower.
If a backbone physical site (iron tower) is installed with both R8840
and R8860, it is necessary to configure 1 BBU nearby the iron tower.
If the physical site for hole coverage is configured with 1 2 sets of
RRU, it is suggested to connect the fiber from the nearest backbone
BBU, instead of from tower-top backbone RRU.
For multiple sets of RRUs sharing the iron tower, the isolation
between TX/Rx and RX must greater than 30dB.
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RSU60E and R8860E
RSU60E / R8860E uses the ADTR instead of the previous DTR.
Compared with RSU60 (80W) /R8860 (80W), they have the same
cabinet-top output power, but the working bandwidth and RF
indices are greatly improved. The bandwidth of a single module
can reach up to 20M (which can be increased to 25M by software
upgrade from December, 2010).
From Oct. 1, 2010, ZTE stops delivering RSU60/R8860, and
deliver RSU60E and R8860E instead.

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RSU60E and R8860E
Difference in names for RSU60/RSU60E

RSU60/RSU60E Remarks
Name defined by
pre-sales
engineers
RSU60
We do not distinguish the new
module and the old one in the
pre-sales stage, and needs not
inform the customer about it.
Name configured in
ECC
RSU60 RSU60E Add E to distinguish both of them
Name in the
shipping list
RSU60 RSU60E
Name in the label RSU60 RSU60E
The label of RSU60 and that of
RSU60E are different.
Name displayed on
NMs
RSU60 RSU60E
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RSU60E and R8860E
Names of R8860/R8860E in different systems

R8860 Remarks
Name defined by pre-sales
engineers
R8860
Name configured in ECC R8860 GU**8 (DC) R8860 GU**8 (DC/E)
Add E to distinguish
both of them
Name in the shipping list
ZXSDR R8860 GU**8 RA
(DC, TX ***MHz-
***MHz)
ZXSDR R8860 GU**8 RA
(DC, TX ***MHz-
***MHz) (V1.10)

Name in the label
ZXSDR R8860 GU**8 RA
(DC, TX ***MHz-
***MHz)
ZXSDR R8860 GU**8 RA
(DC, TX ***MHz-
***MHz)
No difference for
labels of
R8860 (but
different in
appearance)
Name displayed on NMs R8860 (DTR-GUxxx) R8860 (ADTR-GUxxx)
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RSU60E and R8860E
Difference in appearance
RSU60 Vs RSU60E

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RSU60E and R8860E
Difference in appearance
R8860 Vs R8860E

R8860 R8860E

Wide
Depth
Height
Wide
Depth
Height
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RSU60E and R8860E
Difference in NM interfaces
RSU60 Vs RSU60E

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RSU60E and R8860E
Difference in NM interfaces
R8860 Vs R8860E

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Contents
Basic Concepts of SDR
Structure of SDR Base Stations
Introduction to BBU
Introduction to RU/RRU
Introduction to Interface between BBU and RU/RRU
Special Functions of SDR Base Stations
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Fiber interfaces
Each FS board supports 6 fiber interfaces.
Each RU supports 2 fiber interfaces.
The fiber supports both star-type and link-type networking
For link-type networking, at most 4 RUs can be connected in
cascading mode.
BBU is at most 40 Km away from the RU.
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CPRI interface configuration rules
BBU is configured with commercial-level SFP: 1.25G/1310nm single
mode optical module with transmitting and receiving integrated
RSU is configured with industrial-level SFP: 1.25G/1310nm single mode
optical module with transmitting and receiving integrated
RRU has been configured SFP itself, so it is unnecessary to configure
additional SFP.
Fibers between BBU and RSU need not be configured separately.
Number of fibers to be delivered depends on the quantity of RSUs, and it
will not be configured on ECC.
CPRI of the BS8800 main cabinet uses the electrical interface and high-
speed cables. That of both the main cabinet and the extension cabinet
use the optical interface.
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Contents
Basic Concepts of SDR
Structure of SDR Base Stations
Introduction to BBU
Introduction to RU/RRU
Introduction to Interface between BBU and RU/RRU
Special Functions of SDR Base Stations
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High integration
BBU supports 60 TRXs.
RU supports 6TRX/2TRX.
A fiber can support 24 TRX
Support smooth evolution to LTE and HSPA+
All IP transmission based structure
Support multi-band RRU

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Flexible structure
Support macro-base station
Support remote RU
Support both FE/GE and E1/T1
Support both indoor and outdoor requirements
Small volume and light weight
Energy efficient
Support evolution of the technology
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Multiple new functions
Baseband frequency hopping
Transmitting and receiving diversity
Combine multiple carriers
Applied for express railways
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Basic concept baseband frequency hopping
Frequency hopping refers to that multiple frequencies are used for radio
transmission of a single speech/signaling/data link. The transmission
frequency keeps stable within the transmission period of a burst pulse. For
different burse pulses of the same link, the transmission frequency may
change. The MS may be affected by the fading effect of some frequency
on the transmission path. GSM coding and inter-leaving technology helps
to minimize the impact of single-burst lost to the voice quality.
Baseband frequency hopping means that multiple transmitters work on
their respective frequencies, and switch signals of different channels to
different transmitters to send them on the baseband, thus to achieve the
function of frequency hopping.
The function of frequency hopping is easy and feasible. Because of limited
number of TRXs, there are a just a few frequencies available for frequency
hopping.

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Baseband frequency hopping technology
For baseband frequency hopping, each RU has a fixed frequency. The
baseband board figures out the frequency of each timeslot over the
TDMA frame according to frame No. (FN), mobile allocation table (MA),
mobile allocation index offset (MAIO), and frequency hopping serial No.
(HSN). Then, the baseband board switches the data to the
corresponding RU according to the frequency, and receives uplink
data from the corresponding RU. The baseband frequency hopping
can be implemented by DSP, or FS or FPGA on the BP board. At
present, a DSP processes one frequency hopping group, which can
have 12 frequencies at most.
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Basic concept MCUM
Multi-carrier unite combine (MCUM) is a product after 3G OTSR
is introduced into the GSM system.
To meet complex requirements for coverage and high-speed
moving, antennas are placed at multiple positions and multiple
angles to cover each single cell.
The SDR solves the problem about antenna extension and
repeaters by distributing the RRU remotely.
Downlink signals of multiple RRUs are same. The uplink
perform selective combination, that is, MCUM.
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Coverage map of express railways
Cell
1
Cell
2
Cell
n
BBU
Abis
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Features of the technology
The downlink of multiple carriers are same signals.
TRXs of an RU should be processed on the same UBPG. A
UPBG can process 12 TRXs at most.
Uplink signals are combined selectively, which can improve
sensitivity.
Quantity of configured RUs increases.
Quantity of configured UBPGs increases.

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Lower cost
Reduce the cost per unit
Reduce the cost of typical networking
Reduce the operation cost
Reduce the maintenance cost
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Review
Basic concepts of SDR
SDR hardware and software structure
3 types of SDR base stations
Functions of each SDR board
Various interface of SDR
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