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Gas Tungsten Arc Welding

By L D Poyyara
Fusion Welding Process
Arc Between Non-Consumable Tungsten
Rod And Work
Arc & Weld Pool Shielded By Argon
Filler Wire Separately Added To Weld Pool
Welding Torch & Tungsten Rod Cooled by
Flow OF Argon / Cooling Water
Shielding Gas
Inert Gas - Argon , Helium
Common Shielding Gas Argon
When Helium Is Used Called Heli Arc Welding
When Argon Is Used Called Argon Arc Welding
Inert Gas Prevents Contamination Of Molten Metal
It Prevents Oxidation Of Tungsten Rod
It Ionizes Air Gap and Stabilizes Arc
It Cools Welding Torch & Tungsten Rod

Equipment & Accessories
Argon Gas In
Flow Meter
Welding Cable & Cooling
Water In Tube
HF Unit &
Water Cooling
Argon Cylinder
Pressure Regulator
Cooling Water In
Cooling Water Out
Argon Shielding
Tungsten Rod
Power Source
High Frequency
Ceramic Cup
Pedal Switch
GTAW Equipment &
Power Source Inverter, Thyrester,Rectifier,
High Frequency Unit
Water Cooling System
Welding Torch- (Ceramic Cup, Tungsten Rod,
Collet, Gas-lense)
Petal Switch
Argon Gas Cylinder
Pressure Gauge, Regulator, Flow Meter
Earthing Cable With Clamp

Types Of GTAW Power Source
Inverter- DC

Thyrester DC

Motor Generator DC

Rectifier DC

Transformer AC (For Aluminium Welding Only)

Power Source
Provides Electric Energy Arc Heat

Drooping Characteristic

OCV Appx. 90V,

Current Range 40 A to 300 A ( Capacity Of M/s)

Arc Voltage 18V to 26V
Characteristic Of GTAW
Power Source

A1 A2
Drooping Constant Current
High Frequency Unit
Provides High Voltage Electric Energy With
Very high Frequency 10000 Cycles / Sec.

Initiates low energy Arc & ionize Air Gap.

Electrically charges Air Gap For welding
Current to Jump Across the Tungsten Tip &
BM to Form An Arc.

HF Gets Cut Off, Once Welding Arc Struck.
Water Cooling System

Provides Cooling Water To Welding Torch.

Cools Tungsten Rod, Torch handle & Welding

Cooling Water Returns through Flexible Tube
Which Carries welding cable within.
Tungsten Rod
Ceramic Cup
Argon Gas Inlet
Cooling Water Outlet
Cooling Water Inlet Tube with cable
Base Metal
Torch Handle
Cap with collet For
Holding Tungsten
Argon Shielding Gas
Earthing Cable
Petal Switch
Switches system
on And off in
When Petal Pressed
Solenoid valve opens, Argon gas
High Frequency starts jumping from
tungsten rod
Welding current flows generating an
arc across tungsten rod and work.
High frequency gets cut off from the
system & welding continues.
When Petal Released
1 Current gets cut off, Arc extinguishes
2 Gas flow remains for few more
seconds before it stops.
Argon Gas Cylinder- Pressure
Regulator + Flow Meter
Cylinder Stores Argon
At High Pressure

Regulator Regulates
Cylinder Pressure to
Working Pressure

Flow Meter Controls
Flow Rate
Argon Cylinder
Flow Meter
Pressure Regulator
Flow Regulator
Pressure gauges
Cylinder Valve
Connection To Torch
Shielding Gas
Argon - Purity 99.95%

Impure Argon Results In Porosities

Purity Verified by Fusing BQ CS plate

Leakage of Argon in Torch Results in

Check Leakage by Closing the Ceramic
Cup With Thump

Argon Gas Cylinder
Light Blue In Colour

Full Cylinder Pressure: 1800 psi ( 130 Kgs / Cm2 )

Volume Of Argon In Full Cylinder: 7.3 M3

Commercial Argon (99.99%) Cost: Rs 70/- Per M3

High Purity Argon (99.999) Cost: Rs 87/- Per M3

Back Purging
Purging Gas Commercial
Argon or Nitrogen
Applicable to Single
Sided full penetration
Prevents oxidation of
root pass from opposite
side of weld
Essential for high alloy
steels, nonferrous
metals and alloys
Desirable For All
Welding Torch
Root Pass
Purging Gas In
Gas Out
Filler Wire
Tools For GTAW

Head Screen

Hand gloves

Chipping Hammer

Wire Brush

Spanner Set
Tungsten Rod

Non Consumable Electrode.

Maintains Stable Arc

Tip to be Ground to a cone Shape of 60
to 30 angle

Thoriated Tungsten for General
Application, Zerconiated Tungsten for
Aluminium Welding

Sizes :- 2, 2.4 & 3 mm
Tungsten Rod
Ground to
50 ankle
Filler Wire

Added Separately to the weld pool.

Compatible to base metal

Used in cut length for manual welding.

Used from layer wound spool for
automatic welding.

Sizes :- 0.8, 1, 1.2, 1.6, 2, 2.4 & 3 mm
ASME Classification Of Filler Wire
SS Filler Wire:
SFA-5.9, ER 308, 308L, 316, 316L, 347, 309
LAS Filler Wire:
SFA 5.28, ER 70S A1, ER 80S B2, ER90S D2,
ER 80S Ni2
CS Filler Wire:
SFA- 5.18 , ER 70S2
C = 0.07%, Mn = 0.9% 1.4%, Si = 0.4 0.7%, P = 0.025%, S = 0.035%

Dos & Don'ts In GTAW
Always Connect
Electrode Ve
Keep Always Flow
Meter Vertical
Check & Confirm
Argon Purity
Clean Groove & Filler
wire With Acetone
Grind Tungsten Tip to
Dont Strike Arc With
Electrode + Ve
Dont strike Arc Without
Argon Flow
Dont Strike Arc By
touching Tungsten Rod
Dont Touch Weld Pool
With Tungsten Rod
Dont Lift and break Arc

Dos Donts
Dos & Don'ts In GTAW
Break The Arc Only By
Pedal Switch
Lift The Torch only After
5 Sec Of Arc Break.
Ensure Pre Purging &
Post Purging of 5Sec
Ensure Argon Flow &
Water Circulation To
When Arc is Stopped
Dont Lift Torch
Dont Weld With Blend
Tungsten Rod
Dont Weld With Argon
Leaking Torch
Dont Weld Without
Water Circulation
Dos Donts
Dos & Don'ts In GTAW
Provide Back Purging
For Single Sided Full
Penetration Welds
Use N2 or Argon as
Back Purging Gas For
Use Argon As Back
Purging Gas For SS &
Non Ferrous Alloys
Dont Weld Single Sided
Full Penetration Welds
Without Back Purging
Dont Use N2 As Back
Purging Gas For Non
Ferrous Alloys
Dont Empty Ag
Cylinders Fully

Dos Donts
Defects In GTAW
1. Cracks 2. Lack Of Fusion
3. Porosity 4. Undercut
5.Lack Of Penetration 6. Excess Penetration
7.Overlap 8. Suck Back
9. Under Flush 10. Burn Through
11. Tungsten Inclusion 11.Stray Arcing

Cause Remedy
1) Wrong Consumable
2) Wrong Procedure
3) Improper Preheat
4) Inadequate Thickness
In Root Pass
1) Use Right Filler Wire
2) Qualify Procedure
3) Preheat Uniformly
4) Add More Filler Wire
in root Pass
Lack Of Fusion
Cause Remedy
1) Inadequate Current
2) Wrong Torch angle
3) Improper bead placement
1) Use Right Current
2) Train /Qualify welder
3) Train/Qualify Welder

Lack Of Fusion
Cause Remedy
1) Impure Argon Gas
2) Argon Leak Within Torch
3) Defective Filler Wire
4) Wet surface of BM
5) Rusted / Pitted Filler wire
6) Improper Flow Of Argon
1) Replace Argon Cylinder
2) Replace Leaking Torch
3) Replace Filler Wire
4) Clean & Warm BM
5) Clean Filler Wire
6) Provide Gas lense

. .
Cause Remedy
1) Excess Current
2) Excess Voltage
3) Improper Torch angle
1) Reduce the Current
2) Reduce Arc length
3) Train & Qualify the Welder
Under cut
Lack Of Penetration*
Cause Remedy
1) Excess Root Face
2) Inadequate Root opening
3) Over size Filler Wire
4) Wrong Direction of Arc
5) Improper bead placement
6) Improper weaving technique
1) Reduce Root Face
2) Increase Root Opening
3) Reduce Filler Wire size
4) Train / Qualify Welder
5) Train / Qualify Welder
6) Train & Qualify Welder
* Applicable to SSFPW
Excess Penetration*
Cause Remedy
1)Excess root opening
2) Excess Current
3) Inadequate root face
4) Excess Weaving
5) Wrong Direction Of Arc
1) Reduce root gap
2) Reduce Current
3) Increase Root face
4) Train Welder
5) Train Welder
Excess Penetration
* Applicable to SSFPW
Cause Remedy
1) Wrong Direction Of Arc
2) Inadequate Current
3) Excess Filler Wire
1) Train & Qualify Welder
2) Increase Current
3) Reduce Filler Metal

Suck Back*
Cause Remedy

1) Excess weaving in root
2) Excess Current
3) Inadequate root face
4) Wrong Electrode angle

1) Reduce weaving
2) Reduce Current
3) Increase root face
4) Train / Qualify Welder
Suck Back
* Applicable to SSFPW in 4G, 3G & 2G
Under flush
Cause Remedy
1) Inadequate weld beads in
final layer
2) Inadequate understanding on
weld reinforcement
3) Wrong selection of filler wire

1) Weld some more beads
in final layer
2) Train / Qualify welder

3) Train / Qualify Welder

Under flush
Burn through*
Cause Remedy
1) Excess Current
2) Excess Root opening
3) Inadequate Root face
4) Improper weaving
1) Reduce the Current
2) Reduce root opening
3) Increase root face
4) Train / Qualify Welder

Burn trough
*Applicable to root pass
Tungsten Inclusion
Cause Remedy
1) Ineffective HF
2) Improper Starting of Arc

3) Tungsten Tip Comes in
Contact With Weld
1) Rectify HF Unit
2) Never Touch Weld
With Tungsten Rod
3) Train / Qualify welder

Tungsten Inclusion
Stray Arcing
Cause Remedy
1) HF Not In Operation
2) Inadequate Skill of Welder
1) Rectify HF Unit
2) Train the Welder
Arc Strikes