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## API 570 Piping Inspection Code

Part 3: Pipe Fabrication
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Objectives
Determine the Minimum Design Metal Temp
Familiar with welding restrictions
Familiar with basic fabrication requirements
Determine Preheat & PWHT temperatures
Know the NDE requirements for new pipe
Evaluate weld discontinuities

This part will cover Chapter III, V & Vi in B31.3
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Materials
Listed Materials: Material listed in B31.3 in either Table A-1 or Table 326.1

Unlisted Materials: Materials not listed in B31.3
Use only if they meet the material property requirement of the Code

Unknown Materials
Cannot be used for pressure containing components

Selection of material to resist corrosion is not within the Scope of the
Code (323.5)
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Low Temperature Limits
Brittleness of a material is a major design issue for all types of pressure
equipment. A brittle material can fail catastrophically!!

Some of the factors that affect brittleness of a material include:
Material
Temperature
Stress Level
Thickness

The opposite of brittleness is Toughness. Brittle materials have low toughness.
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Low Temperature Limits
Minimum Temperature per Code
Most Material Listed Table A-1
Most CS Lists Curve Letter

Below this temperature
Material cannot be used or
The material must be impact tested at desired temperature

Carbon Steel Low Temp Process
1. Find Curve Letter Table A-1
2. Find Initial Min Temp
Use Table 323.2.2A (t
nominal
)
Check Notes Fig 323.2.2A
3. If Stress Ratio
Fig 323.2.2B Reduction Temp
Enter at Left (Stress Ratio)
At Curve go vertical to Reduction Temp
Subtract Reduction from Step 2

Impact Test Acceptance Criteria
1. Each set has 3 bars
2. Average Table 323.3.5
3. Minimum Table 323.3.5
4. Only 1 specimen Table Ave
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Exercise 1
1. What is the minimum design temperature for A-335-P5 (5% Cr)

2. What is the minimum design temperature for A-358 Type 304L?

3. What is the minimum design temperature for a 0.750 pipe that is made from A-106-B?

4. What is the minimum design temperature for a 0.500 pipe that is made from A-516-60 plate
and is normalized?

5. What is the minimum design temperature for a 0.625 pipe that is made from A-106-C and has
a Stress Ratio of 0.90?

6. If the designer wants to use a pipe material below the minimum temperature allowed by B31.3,
then the material must be ________

7. Impact testing is performed on an pipe made from A-106-C (a fully deoxidized steel). Determine
the following:
a. The impact procedure must follow what specs?
b. The set consists of how many bars?
c. The minimum average for the set is?
d. The minimum value for a single bar is?
e. How many bar(s) can be below the required average?

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1. What is the minimum design temperature for A-335-P5 (5% Cr) -20
o
F

2. What is the minimum design temperature for A-358 Type 304L? -425
o
F

3. What is the minimum design temperature for a 0.750 pipe that is made from A-106-B?
Curve B, 15
o
F

4. What is the minimum design temperature for a 0.500 pipe that is made from A-516-60 plate
and is normalized? Curve D, -55
o
F

5. What is the minimum design temperature for a 0.625 pipe that is made from A-106-C and has
a Stress Ratio of 0.90? Curve B, -7
o
F

6. If the designer wants to use a pipe material below the minimum temperature allowed by B31.3,
then the material must be impact tested

7. Impact testing is performed on an pipe made from A-106-C (a fully deoxidized steel). Determine
the following:
a. The impact procedure must follow what specs? ASTM A370 & A333
b. The set consists of how many bars? 3
c. The minimum average for the set is? 20 Joules
d. The minimum value for a single bar is? 16 Joules
e. How many bar(s) can be below the required average? 1

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Fabrication - Welding
Qualified Weld Procedure
ASME B&PV Section IX
Can accept some Procedures qualified by others

Welder Qualification
ASME B&PV Section IX
Can accept Qualifications by others

Welding Records
Employer maintain procedures and performance records

Welder Identification
Unique ID or Symbol
Stamp each weld or
Use weld maps

Tacks weld
Fused with the root pass

Fillet weld sizing
Figure 328.5.2
Min weld size 1/8
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Info
Other Miscellaneous Requirements

1. If excessive misalignment, taper with a maximum angle of 30 degrees

2. Peening is prohibited on the root & final pass

3. Seal welds allowed but must cover all exposed threads

4. Flange allignment
a. Parallel within 1/16 per foot (diameter)
b. Bolt holes aligned within 1/8

5. Bolt length: Bolts should extend completely through the nut. If not, has to be
within one thread of complete engagement

6. Gaskets: Only 1 per flange assembly
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Welding & Distortion
The Principles
Thermal Growth As metals heat up they expand. When cooled, they shrink.
A metals strength decreases with increasing temperatures

How Distortion Occurs
The arc is initiated
Hot surface expands & distorts the plate
Not much since the hot side is much weaker than the cool side
Completed weld, as heat moves away from weld. Weld contracts
Completed weld is distorted & has residual stresses
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Info
Stresses from Welding

1. When we apply heat in a non-uniform method (welding) the result is a dimensional change
causing the part to be distorted or warped

2. The Principle As the metals cool they shrink. A CS weld that is wide will shrink about
10 mils.
The base metal is anchored. As the weld shrinks, the base pulls the cooling weld.
(Tensile Stress)
At higher temperature, the weld metal is weak and ductile. It can be pulled and
reshaped to account for shrinkage
At low temperature, the weld metal is stronger and less ductile. It is not easily
reshaped
Remaining pull on the weld once cool Residual Stresses
If Residual Stresses exceed strength of weld Crack

3. Residual stresses can be reduced or eliminated by:
Preheat
Thermal heat treatment
Peening pneumatic hammer used to pound on welds eg jitterbug type of equipment
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Preheat & PWHT
Preheating (330)
Used to minimize detrimental effects caused from welding
Preheat temperatures; Use Table 330.1.1
Preheat zone shall extend at least 1 from toe of weld

Post Weld Heat Treating (331)
Used to relieve detrimental effects caused from welding
PWHT temperatures: Use Table 331.1.1
PWHT zone shall extend at least 1 from toe of weld
Partial HT: Minimum overlap of 1
Local HT: Full circumference
Hardness Testing if required 10% of Furnace welds, 100% of field welds
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Exercise 2
1. Determine the minimum preheat temperatures for the following situations. Determine whether
the pre-heat is required (Reqd) or recommended (Rec)
a. 0.750 thick, P-1 material, SMTS = 65 ksi
b. 0.250 thick, P-8 material
c. 0.500 thick, P-1 material, SMTS = 75 ksi
d. 0.325 thick, P-5C material
e. 1.250 thick, P-1 material, SMTS = 70 ksi

2. At what base metal temperature, do all the recommend preheat temps become required
temperatures?

3. Determine the PWHT temperature for the following situations.
a. 0.750 thick, P-1 material, SMTS = 65 ksi
b. 0.250 thick, P-8 material
c. 0.800 thick, P-1 material, SMTS = 70 ksi
d. 0.325 thick, 5% Cr material

4. What is the minimum holding time a PWHT conducted on a CS pipe that is 1.500 thick?

5. What is the minimum holding time a PWHT conducted on a CS pipe that is 0.875 thick?

6. What is the minimum holding time a PWHT conducted on a 9% Cr pipe that is 0.750 thick?

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1. Determine the minimum preheat temperatures for the following situations. Determine whether
the pre-heat is required (Reqd) or recommended (Rec)
a. 0.750 thick, P-1 material, SMTS = 65 ksi 50
o
F, Rec
b. 0.250 thick, P-8 material 50
o
F, Rec
c. 0.500 thick, P-1 material, SMTS = 75 ksi 175
o
F, Rec
d. 0.325 thick, P-5C material 350
o
F, Reqd
e. 1.250 thick, P-1 material, SMTS = 70 ksi 175
o
F, Rec

2. At what base metal temperature, do all the recommend preheat temps become required
temperatures? < 0
o
C (32
o
F)

3. Determine the PWHT temperature for the following situations.
a. 0.750 thick, P-1 material, SMTS = 65 ksi None
b. 0.250 thick, P-8 material None
c. 0.800 thick, P-1 material, SMTS = 70 ksi 1100 - 1200
o
F (593 - 649
o
C)
d. 0.325 thick, 5% Cr material 1300 - 1400
o
F (704 - 760
o
C)

4. What is the minimum holding time a PWHT conducted on a CS pipe that is 1.500 thick?
1.5 hr

5. What is the minimum holding time a PWHT conducted on a CS pipe that is 0.875 thick?
1 hr

6. What is the minimum holding time a PWHT conducted on a 9% Cr pipe that is 0.750 thick?
2 hr
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Examination
Category D
Some visual

Normal Service
Some visual: materials, fabrication & assembly
Visual: 5% of all welds
RT: 5% of circ welds

Severe Cyclic
Visual: 100% of fabrication & assembly
RT: 100% of circ welds
MT/PT: All socket-welds

RT Criteria Table 341.3.2
T
w
= wall thickness
and means lesser of values

Progressive Sampling
Random Exam Reject
Take 2 more
RT: 5% of circ welds

Progressive Sampling
Random Exam Reject
Take 2 more
If these OK, repair & stop
If any defects, then
Take 2 more for each reject
If these OK, repair & stop
If any defects, then
Exam all or Repair all
Only those represented by
this Random Exam
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Exercise 3
1. A new Normal Service pipe is fabricated. The wall thickness is 0.500. Determine the maximum
allowed dimension for the following discontinuities:
a. Crack
b. Lack of fusion
c. Length of a slag inclusion
d. Width of a slag inclusion
e. Cumulative Length of slag inclusions
f. Depth of Undercut
g. Length of Undercut
h. Maximum Cap Height

2. All NDE methods shall be performed in accordance with __________

3. All NDE personnel should be qualified in accordance with ____________

Info - NDE Definitions:
100% Examination :All of All
Random Examination : All of Some
Spot Examination : Some of All
Random Spot Examination : Some of Some
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1. A new Normal Service pipe is fabricated. The wall thickness is 0.500. Determine the maximum
allowed dimension for the following discontinuities:
a. Crack 0
b. Lack of fusion 0
c. Length of a slag inclusion 2Tw = 2 x 0.5 = 1
d. Width of a slag inclusion 1/8
e. Cumulative Length of slag inclusions 2 in any 6 length
f. Depth of Undercut 1/32
g. Length of Undercut Unlimited
h. Maximum Cap Height 1/8

2. All NDE methods shall be performed in accordance with ASME Section V

3. All NDE personnel should be qualified in accordance with SNT-TC-1A
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Pressure Testing
Purpose of testing
Find leaks in joints
Create higher stress than the operation stress
Minimize the risk of brittle fracture while in-service

All new pipe is tested
Cat D Service Test

Minimum Hold Time
10 minutes

Joints - Uninsulated

Hydrotest Pneumatic Test

S
PxS
P
T
T
5 . 1

P
P
P P
P P
T
T initial
T

inspect
T RV
P
(lesser) psig 50 P or 1 . 1 P
(lesser) psig 25 or 5 . 0
1 . 1
S
T
: Allowable Stress at Test Temperature (Usually @ 100
o
F)
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Info
Why S
T
/S?

Note that S
T
/S will always be 1.0. If greater than 1.0, then the pipe will be tested at a pressure
higher than 1.5 x P
T
. A pipe will always be tested at or near ambient temperature. But at ambient
temperature, a material is stronger than at some elevated temperature. So, for pipe that is
designed for elevated temperatures, S
T
/S adjusts the test pressure upward, recognizing that
the material is stronger at test temperature.

Actually P x S
T
/S is basically the pressure this pipe is good for if it was rerated to a design
temperature of 100
o
F
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Exercise 4
1. Determine the required hydrotest pressure for a 8 NPS pipe. The design pressure is 500 psig at
600
o
F. The pipe is made of A-106 Gr A material.

2. A pneumatic pressure test is going to be performed on a 16 NPS piping system. The design
pressure is 100 psig at 300
o
F. The pipe is made of A-106 Gr C material. Determine the following
pressures.
a. Test Pressure
b. Initial System Pressure
c. Maximum Relief Valve Pressure
d. Inspection Pressure
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1. Determine the required hydrotest pressure for a 8 NPS pipe. The design pressure is 500 psig at
600
o
F. The pipe is made of A-106 Gr A material. P
T
= 811 psig

2. A pneumatic pressure test is going to be performed on a 16 NPS piping system. The design
pressure is 100 psig at 300
o
F. The pipe is made of A-106 Gr C material. Determine the following
pressures.
a. Test Pressure P
T
= 110 psig
b. Initial System Pressure P
Initial
= 25 psig
c. Maximum Relief Valve Pressure P
RV
= 121 psig
d. Inspection Pressure P
Inspect
= 100 psig