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Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition

By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
OBJECTIVES
After studying Chapter 3, the reader should be able to:
1. Explain the purpose of the heating, ventilation, and
airconditioning (HVAC) system in automobiles and
other vehicles.
2. Discuss temperature and humidity comfort zones.
3. Explain how heat is measured in both temperature
and quantity, using either metric or U.S./British
units.
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
INTRODUCTION
For the most part, the HVAC system of an
automobile is designed to provide comfort for the
driver and passengers.
It is intended to maintain in-car temperature and humidity
within a range that is comfortable for the people inside
and provide fresh, clean air for ventilation.
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
INTRODUCTION
FIGURE 3-1 The air moves through the HVAC systems ducts,
evaporator, and cabin/clean air filter (a). Excess heat, moisture,
dust, and pollen are removed to condition the air and make it more
comfortable (b). (a is provided courtesy of Toyota Motor Sales
USA, Inc.)
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
INTRODUCTION
FIGURE 3-2 A typical HVAC system has a choice of two inlets (right), a blower to
move the air, an A/C evaporator core and heater core, and several air discharge
outlets.
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
INTRODUCTION
The HVAC system in a vehicle (Figure 3-2) can be
divided into three closely related subsystems:
Air distribution, also called air management, with the
control system: The HVAC case with doors that control
the air flow.
Heating: The heater core that heats the air.
Refrigeration, A/C: The evaporator core that cools the air.
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
HEAT
Heat is a form of basic
energy, and, like other
forms of energy, heat
cannot be created or
destroyed.
It can, however, be converted
to or from other forms of
energy.
FIGURE 3-3 Heat, like light and electricity, is one of
the basic forms of energy. (Courtesy of Chrysler LLC)
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
HEAT
FIGURE 3-4 An engine converts potential energy from fuel into mechanical energy.
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
HEAT
FIGURE 3-5 About one-third of the heat in an
engine is converted into useful power. The
other two-thirds is lost to the cooling and
exhaust systems.
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
HEAT
FIGURE 3-6 One of the basic principles of heat is that it always
travels toward a colder area, and the rate of movement is
determined by the temperature difference.
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
HEAT
FIGURE 3-7 (a) In a cooling system, heat flows from the hot engine parts to the
colder coolant (b), then to the colder radiator, and then to the colder ambient air (c).
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
HEAT MEASUREMENT
A heating and air-conditioning technician is
concerned with measuring two different aspects of
heat: intensity and quantity.
Intensity is what we feel; it is measured in degrees, on
either a Celsius or Fahrenheit scale.
Quantity is the actual amount of heat; it is measured in
either calories or British thermal units (Btu).
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
HEAT MEASUREMENT
Heat Intensity
Measuring Intensity
Heat Quantity
Measuring Quantity
FIGURE 3-8 Heat intensity is measured
using a thermometer. The two common
measuring scales, Celsius and Fahrenheit,
are shown here. This thermometer is also
marked with important temperatures.
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
HEAT MEASUREMENT
FIGURE 3-9 Water is a solid, ice, below 32F, and adding heat will change it to a
liquid. Adding more heat will cause water to boil (above 212F) and turn to vapor
called steam.
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
HEAT MEASUREMENT
FIGURE 3-10 A combined scale can be used to convert temperatures between the
Celsius and Fahrenheit scales.
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
HEAT MEASUREMENT
FIGURE 3-11 We put about 115,000 Btu of heat energy in the car with each gallon of
gas we buy.
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
HEAT MEASUREMENT
FIGURE 3-12 A wooden match produces about 1 Btu of heat when it
burns. This amount of heat will increase the temperature of 1 lb of
water 1F. (Courtesy of Fluke; reproduced with permission)
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
COMFORT
Our goal in heating and air conditioning is to
maintain a comfortable in-vehicle temperature and
humidity.
This is affected by the size of the vehicle, the number of
passengers, and the amount of glass area, to name only
a few variables.
Humidity
Cleanliness
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
COMFORT
FIGURE 3-13 Human comfort is greatly
affected by temperature and humidity.
(Courtesy of www.ergonomics4schools.com)
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
COMFORT
FIGURE 3-14 When air comes into contact with the cold evaporator,
excess moisture forms dew. This condensed moisture leaves the car
through the evaporator drain.
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
COMFORT
FIGURE 3-15 The dew on the evaporator traps dust and pollen that
comes in contact with it; the dust and pollen drain out with the water.
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
SUMMARY
1. Heat is moved into or out of the passenger compartment to
obtain a good comfort level.
2. Heat intensity is measured using the Fahrenheit and
Celsius scales, and heat quantity is measured using
calories and BTUs.
3. The comfort zone of most humans is between 65 and
80F (21 and 27C).
4. A/C systems reduce humidity by removing water from the
air.
5. HVAC systems clean air because particles are caught by
moisture on the evaporator and by filters.
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
REVIEW QUESTIONS
1. HVAC is short for _________, _________, and
__________________.
2. A typical HVAC system uses a(n) _________ to
cool the air, a(n) to warm the air, and _________ or
_________ to control the air flow.
3. _________ is a form of energy that makes us feel
warmer, and _________ is the absence of heat.
4. Heat intensity is commonly measured using either
the _________ or _________ scale.
5. A temperature of 100C is equal to _________
F.
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
REVIEW QUESTIONS
6. Heat quantity is commonly measured using units
of _________ or _________.
7. Heat always moves from _________ to
_________.
8. The A/C system can make air _________,
_________, and _________.
9. RH is generally _________ as air warms up.
10. Moisture that collects on the evaporator reduces
the _________ in the vehicle.
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
1. A vehicles HVAC system contains a(n)
_________ system.
a) A/C
b) Heater
c) air distribution
d) All of these
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
1. A vehicles HVAC system contains a(n)
_________ system.
a) A/C
b) Heater
c) air distribution
d) All of these
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
2. Air-conditioning systems control which of the
following in a vehicle?
a) Temperature
b) Humidity
c) Air cleanliness
d) All of these
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
2. Air-conditioning systems control which of the
following in a vehicle?
a) Temperature
b) Humidity
c) Air cleanliness
d) All of these
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
3. Two students are discussing heat movement.
Student A says that heat is a form of energy.
Student B says heat travels from hot to cold. Who
is correct?
a) Student A
b) Student B
c) Both A and B
d) Neither A nor B
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
3. Two students are discussing heat movement.
Student A says that heat is a form of energy.
Student B says heat travels from hot to cold. Who
is correct?
a) Student A
b) Student B
c) Both A and B
d) Neither A nor B
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
4. Heat intensity refers to which of the following?
a) The amount of heat in an area
b) The number of Btu in an area
c) The heat individuals feel
d) None of these
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
4. Heat intensity refers to which of the following?
a) The amount of heat in an area
b) The number of Btu in an area
c) The heat individuals feel
d) None of these
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
5. The freezing point of water is _________ on the
Celsius scale.
a) 100
b) 0
c) 32
d) 212
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
5. The freezing point of water is _________ on the
Celsius scale.
a) 100
b) 0
c) 32
d) 212
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
6. The boiling point of water is _________ on the
Fahrenheit scale.
a) 0
b) 32
c) 100
d) 212
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
6. The boiling point of water is _________ on the
Fahrenheit scale.
a) 0
b) 32
c) 100
d) 212
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
7. Student A says that 1 c of heat can increase the
temperature of 1 g of water by 1F. Student B
says the temperature will increase 1C if 1 c is
added. Who is correct?
a) Student A
b) Student B
c) Both A and B
d) Neither A nor B
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
7. Student A says that 1 c of heat can increase the
temperature of 1 g of water by 1F. Student B
says the temperature will increase 1C if 1 c is
added. Who is correct?
a) Student A
b) Student B
c) Both A and B
d) Neither A nor B
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
8. The normal temperature for the average human is
_________.
a) 80F
b) 100F
c) 60F
d) 98.6F
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
8. The normal temperature for the average human is
_________.
a) 80F
b) 100F
c) 60F
d) 98.6F
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
9. The amount of moisture contained by air is called
_________.
a) Temperature
b) Ambient
c) Humidity
d) None of these
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
9. The amount of moisture contained by air is called
_________.
a) Temperature
b) Ambient
c) Humidity
d) None of these
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
10. In addition to cooling the passenger compartment,
an airconditioning system _________.
a) heats the passengers
b) dehumidifies the air
c) puts moisture in the air
d) All of these
Automotive Heating and Air Conditioning, Fifth Edition
By Tom Birch
2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc.
Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
CHAPTER QUIZ
10. In addition to cooling the passenger compartment,
an airconditioning system _________.
a) heats the passengers
b) dehumidifies the air
c) puts moisture in the air
d) All of these