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Effective Training: Systems,

Strategies, and Practices, 4


th
Edition
Chapter Eight
P. Nick Blanchard and James W. Thacker
8-1 Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8-2
Development Phase
Input Process Output
Methods
Alternative
Instructional
Instructional
Strategy
Determine Factors
that Facilitate
Learning &
Transfer
Program
Development Plan
Instructional
Material
Instructional
Equipment
Trainee and
Trainer Manuals
Facilities
Trainer
Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8-3
Training Method Effectiveness at
Meeting KSA Objectives Part 1 of 3
Objectives of Training
Knowledge Skills Attitude
Training Methods Declara- tive Procedural Strategic Technical
Inter-
personal
Lecture:
Straight
3 2 1 1 1 3
Discussion 4 3 2 1 1 4
Demonstration 1 4 2 4 4 3
Comp. Based
Programmed Instruction
5 4 3 2 2 3
Intelligent Tutoring 5 4 4 5 2 4
Interactive
Multimedia
5 4 4 5 4 4
Virtual Reality 3 5 3 4 4 4
Simulation 5 5 5 5 3 3
a This rating is for lectures delivered orally, printed lectures would be one point higher in each knowledge category
Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8-4
Training Method Effectiveness at
Meeting KSA Objectives Part 2 of 3
Objectives of Training
Knowledge Skills Attitude
Training Methods Declare Procedural Strategic Technical
Inter-
personal
Simulations/
Games Equipment
1 3 2 5 1 2
Case studies 2 2 4 2 2 3
Business games 2 3 5 2 2
b
2
In-Basket 1 3 4 1 2
c
2
Role play 1 2 2 2 4 5
d

Behavior Model. 1 3 3 4 5 3
b If the business game is designed for interpersonal skills, this would be a 4.
c If multiple in-baskets were used this rating would be 3.
d Specifically role reversal.

Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8-5
Training Method Effectiveness at
Meeting KSA Objectives Part 3 of 3
Objectives of Training
Knowledge Skills Attitude
Training
Methods
Declare Procedural Strategic Technical
Inter-
personal
OJT
JIT
3 5 4 4 2 5
Apprentice 5 5 4 5 2 5
Coaching 3 5 4 4 4 5
Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8-6
Components of Instructional
Strategy Part 1 of 3
Program Development Plan

Name of Program: Pipe fitting I

Target Population: Apprentices who have successfully passed
the gas fitters exam

Overall Training Objective: Trainees will be able to examine a
work project and with appropriate tools; measure, cut, thread,
and install the piping according to standards outlined in the gas
code.
Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8-7
Components of Instructional
Strategy Part 2 of 3
Learning Objective Learning Points Methods Material and AV
1. Using a tape 1. Take into account Lecture and Trainee manual
measure, deter- the extra length simulation Overhead
mine the length necessary Assortment of
and number of due to threading 1-inch and 3/4-
pipes necessary 2. Take into account inch fittings,
to connect the length is reduced by elbows, street
furnace to the gas different fittings, elbows, and
meter in a manner e.g., street elbow, unions
that meets the gas union, elbow, etc. Mock meter
code 3. How to construct and furnace
appropriate drop setup
for furnace Tape measure,
note pads

Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8-8
Components of Instructional
Strategy Part 3 of 3
Learning Objective Learning Points Method Material and AV
2. Use threading 1. Length of thread Lecture and Trainee manual
machine to cut required simulation VCR and TV
and thread length 2. Importance of Threading tape
of pipe required cutting and Threading machine
reaming,
measuring, and use Steel pipe
of threading Oil Tape measure
machine oil
Facility and configuration:
Trainer:
Measures to assist transfer:
Method of evaluation:
Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8-9
Different Seating Arrangements
for Training Part 1 of 6
= Trainer
X = Easel/charts
x
A

Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8-10
Different Seating Arrangements
for Training Part 2 of 6
= Trainer
X = Easel/charts
x
B
Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8-11
Different Seating Arrangements
for Training Part 3 of 6
= Trainer
X = Easel/charts
x
C
Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8-12
Different Seating Arrangements
for Training Part 4 of 6
= Trainer
X = Easel/charts
D
x x
Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8-13
Different Seating Arrangements
for Training Part 5 of 6
= Trainer
X = Easel/charts
x x
E
Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8-14
Different Seating Arrangements
for Training Part 6 of 6
= Trainer
X = Easel/charts
x
F
Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8-15
Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes
Required of an Effective Trainer
Part 1 of 2
Knowledge
Subject matter
Organization
Adult learning process
Instructional methods
Skills
Interpersonal communication skills
Verbal skills
Active listening
Questioning
Providing feedback
Platform skills (ability to speak with inflection, gesture appropriately, and
maintain eye contact)
Organization skills (ability to present information in logical order and stay on
point.)

Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8-16
Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes
Required of an Effective Trainer
Part 2 of 2
Attitudes

Commitment to the organization
Commitment to helping others
High level of self efficacy


Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8-17
Implementation Phase
Input
Process
Output
Dry
Run
Pilot
Program
Learned
KSAs
Evaluation
Implementation
Instructional
Material
Instructional
Equipment
Facilities
Trainee
and Trainer
Manuals
Trainer

Program
Development Plan
Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8-18
Experiential Learning Model
Experience
(the exercise/game)
Practice
(try it out)
Lecturette
(provide information)
Generalizability
(relevancy to other
situations)
Processing
(analysis of experience
and information)
Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8-19
Relationship Between the Experiential
Learning Model and Gagne-Briggs Nine
Events of instruction Part 1 of 3
Experience: (the exercise/game) Attention: the exercise provides a
task that gets trainees sharing their
experiences and becoming very
involved in the process.
Stimulating recall of prior knowledge: Through
the exercise, trainees are required to generate ideas
and information based on prior knowledge.

Lecturette: Providing information Informing trainee of the goal or
objective: Prior to providing
information it would be useful to
reiterate the objective even if it had
been done before the start of the
training session.
Presenting stimulus material:
Lecture material
Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8-20
Relationship Between the Experiential
Learning Model and Gagne-Briggs Nine
Events of instructionPart 2 of 3
Processing: Analysis Providing learning guidance:
Of experience and Discussions allow the trainees
Information to explore the previous experience
and tie it into what they have
learned. Assess performance and
provide feedback.

Generalizability: Relevancy Providing learning guidance:
To other situations Discussions on how the
information learned fits similar
situations and see where the new
information fits in their schema. This
discussion will clarify where it fits into
the individual trainees schema for
ease of retrieval in different relevant
situations.

Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8-21
Relationship Between the Experiential
Learning Model and Gagne-Briggs Nine
Events of instructionPart 3 of 3
Practice: Try it out Eliciting Performance: Practice the
new learning

Experience
2
: More complex Enhancing retention and transfer:
Or varied example of the Here practice on different situations
New learning provides increased likelihood that the
new learning will not only be retained,
but transfer to the job.
Copyright c 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 8-22
Transfer of Training
Input Process Output
Supervisor and Peer
Support

Post-Training
Self-Efficacy
Alignment of
Reward System
Supportive Climate
Relapse Prevention
and Goal Setting
Trainer Support
Learned KSAs
Practice Learned
KSAs on the Job
Valence of Outcomes
KSAs Transferred
to the Job