Sie sind auf Seite 1von 83

IRONMAKING IN BLAST FURNACES

| | | | | | | | |
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
-
30 -

20 -

10 -

0 -


5 -

-
Fe
2
O
3

Scrap
Hot metal
Refining
Liquid
steel
Direct molten
steelmaking
Blast furnace and
Smelting Reduction
Direct
reduction
Remelting
DRI, HBI
O
x
y
g
e
n

%

C
a
r
b
o
n

%

Temperature
O
C
Iron ore
Scrap
IRON ORE TO LIQUID STEEL
BLAST FURNACE IRONMAKING
Amongst all the ironmaking processes, the blast
furnace still holds the dominant position.

The blast furnace has remained up-to-date and
competitive with the new technologies.

Hot metal production rates of 8000-10,000 tpd, fuel rates
of around 450-470 kg/thm (270-275 kg coke plus 175-225
kg coal), furnace availability ranging between 95-98%
and campaign life of 15-20 years are benchmarks today.
SIZE AND NUMBER OF BLAST FURNACES IN
THE WORLD
130
59
80
63
38
35
34
8
21
9
7
4
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
0

-

5
0
0
5
0
1

-

1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1

-

1
5
0
0
1
5
0
1

-

2
0
0
0
2
0
0
1

-

2
5
0
0
2
5
0
1

-

3
0
0
0
3
0
0
1

-

3
5
0
0
3
5
0
1

-

4
0
0
0
4
0
0
1

-

4
5
0
0
4
5
0
1

-

5
0
0
0
5
0
0
1

-

5
5
0
0
5
5
0
1
-
6
0
0
0
BF inner volume, m
3
N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

B
F
s
In 2007, there were around 490 BFs varying in size from 500 to
6000 m
3
inner volume
BLAST FURNACES IN INDIA
BF size, m
3

(inner vol.)
No. of
Furnaces
Combined
inner vol.,
000 m
3

Production,
Mpta
> 3000 4 6.4 4.0
2000-3000 8 17.2 8.5
1500-1999 8 14.1 6.5
1000-1499 15 16.2 7.5
500-999 8 3.9 3.0
< 500 ~ 30 ~ 5.5 ~ 2.5
Total 68 61 32
INCREASING BLAST FURNACE SIZE IN INDIA
Steelworks Inner vol.,
m
3

Capacity,
Mtpa
Big BFs JWS 4019 3.0
Tata Steel - G
(after upgrdation)
2308 1.8
Tata Steel - H 3800 2.5
Tata Steel - I 3800 2.5
Big BFs
Under project planning
stage
Vizag # 3 ~ 4000 3.0
Bhilai # 0 ~ 3800 2.7
IISCO ~ 3200 2.2
Bokaro 2 rebuild ~ 2600 1.8
Tata Steel KPO ~ 4000 x 2 6.4
Medium and small BFs
under construction
JSW, JSPL, Bhusan 1680 x 2 3.0
Various others < 500 2.0
MACRO-FEATURES OF A BLAST FURNACE
The furnace is a refractory lined steel shell filled with material
viz. coke, iron ore, sinter, pellets, flux, etc. from the stockline
down to the bottom. The process goes on continuously for
several years till the furnace is shut down for repairs and
modification. The inputs and outputs are represented per
metric ton (i.e. tonne) of hot metal.
Preheated air at 1000-1250
O
C is blown through tuyeres into the
furnace. It may be enriched with some pure oxygen, moisture.
Most modern furnaces also inject pulverised coal. Exothermic
combustion of coke and coal by oxygen of air gasifies carbon
into CO and also provides heat. The highest temperature zone of
the furnace (1900-2000
O
C) is at the level of tuyeres the raceway.

8 H Blast Furnace
Cinder Ladle
S
L
A
G
SGDP
Granulated
RMH
(Iron Ore & Fluxes)
Sinter Plant
(Sinter)
HMCPCL
(Coke)
Torpedo
O2
Steam



Cold Air



Stoves
Hot Air
Charge


Stock House




Belt Charging
Coal Injection
LD#1 & LD#2







Cast
house
Hot
Metal
Process Mapping
BLAST FURNACE PLANT
Top Gas Iron Ore
Hot Blast
Hot Metal
Heating
Reduction
Melting
Job Sub -steps
Bosh Gas Tool
Function that BF must satisfy
BLAST FURNACE PROBING AND CONTROL
For containing heat, lining is important. It is subjected to:
Carbon monoxide attack.
Action of alkali and other vapours high temperature.
Abrasion by moving solid charges.
Attack by molten slag and metal.
Effect of furnace design and operation.
There have been attempts to use silicon carbide bricks in the
bosh region as inner refractory lining.
Alumino-silicates and carbon are refractory materials most
commonly employed for BF lining.
Ordinary fireclay bricks containing 40-45% Al
2
O
3
are used in the
upper stack. 60% Al
2
O
3
(known as high duty fireclay) is employed
for lower stack, belly and bosh.
BLAST FURNACE REFRACTORY LINING
Carbon is the popular refractory in the hearth. It has very high
thermal conductivity. The hearth is cooled by water.
HOT BLAST STOVES
TYPICAL COST BREAK UP FOR HOT METAL
(25.4%) Ore &
Scrap
(1.2%) Fluxes
(47.4%)
Coke
(3.7%) Coal &
Tar injection
(4.7%) Blowing
cost
(5.1%) Others
(6.2%) Labour
& Admn.
(2.5%)
Maintenance
(2.5%) Relining
(1.3%)
Refractories
DEVELOPMENTS IN BF IRONMAKING
TECHNOLOGICAL IMPROVEMENTS IN BFs IN
GERMANY AND EFFECT ON COKE RATE
IMPROVEMENTS IN BLAST FURNACES
Maximum size of blast furnaces stabilised at about 15 m hearth
diameter; inner volume of 5000-6000 m
3
.

Maximum productivity achieved 2.8-2.9 t/m
3
/day using
conventional raw materials. Maximum output is 12000 tpd;
equivalent to 4 Mtpa.

Coke consumption (without coal injection or other fuel) is at
best about 450 kg/thm, i.e 3.15 Gcal or 12.5 GJ, with recoverable
excess BF gas of energy value 3-4 GJ.

Iron ore beneficiation becoming mandatory for reduction of slag
volume from 300-350 kg/thm to 200 kg or even 100-150 kg/thm
using high grade pellets (66-68%).
Injection of hydrocarbons through the tuyeres generates H
2

and CO in the combustion zone. H
2
gives several additional
benefits, such as:

Faster gaseous reduction of iron oxides.

Higher thermal conductivity of the gas and consequently,
faster heat transfer to the solid burden.

Better bed permeability in the furnace, since hydrogen has
a much lower density than CO and N2.
AUXILIARY FUEL INJECTION INTO BLAST
FURNACES
Country Coke,
kg/thm
Coal,
kg/thm
Oil,
kg/thm
Others,
kg/thm
Total,
kg/thm
Japan 414 98.8 - 1.2 514
USA 413 36.5 10.0 40 499.5
France 351 125.6 3.5 - 480.1
Germany 359 51 63 - 473
Italy 353 129.5 15 - 497.5
Netherlands 357 141 - - 498
UK 394 43 55 - 492
India 480 120 - - 600
TOTAL REDUCING AGENTS IN 1995
Today, in many countries, coke consumption even as low as 270-
290 kg/thm has been achieved at coal injection rates of 190-220
kg/thm, with a coke to coal replacement ratio in the range of
0.9-1.08.
COAL INJECTION INTO BLAST FURNACE
Pulverised coal injection (PCI) is a of considerable current
interest.
In most cases, 1 kg coal at best replaces 1 kg coke, referred
to as Replacement ratio. Sometimes, RR can be more than 1.
Typically, coal is ground to about 80% below 75 micron
(0.075mm).
Coal injection is normally accompanied by suitable oxygen
enrichment of the air blast.
Coal injection rates above 100 kg coal/thm are quite common
now-a-days and some modern furnaces have reached a level
as high as 250 kg/thm.
Choice of appropriate coal in terms of its ability to combust
easily in the raceway, depends on the nature of the coal
(particularly its volatile matter content), particle size
distribution and mode of injection. All these factors influence
the Replacement ratio.
INCREASE IN GLOBAL AVERAGE PCI RATE
Higher PCI calls for better coke.
Avg. PCI rate in 2008-09 :
Japan, Korea, Taiwan 120, China 190, EU 215,
Tata Steel India 160, JSPL, India 130-140, Baotou, China 150.
40
60
80
100
120
140
1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008
Year
k
g
/
t
h
m
PRESSURE DROP AT DIFFERENT COKE RATES
LIMITATION OF COAL COMBUSTION IN THE
RACEWAY
CHARGING SYSTEM: BELL TYPE
BELL-LESS TOP
WITH ROTATING
CHUTE
LATEST IS GIMBLE
TOP CHARGING
SYSTEM
ADVANTAGES ACCRUED FROM IMPROVED
BURDEN DISTRIBUTION
Increased productivity, decreased coke rate, improved
furnace life.
Improved wind acceptance and reduced hanging as well
as slips.
Improved efficiency of gas utilisation and indirect
reduction.
Lower silicon content in hot metal and consistency in the
hot metal quality.
Reduces tuyere losses and minimisation of scaffold
formation.
Reduced dust emission owing to uniform distribution of
fines.
CENTRAL WORKING AND WALL WORKING
BLAST FURNACES
MONITORING BURDEN DISTRIBUTION
The monitoring system for assessing distribution includes:

Heat flux monitoring equipment to measure the heat flow in
different zones (both above and under the burden).
Profile meters for the measurement of surface profiles.
Thermocouples in the throat, stack and bosh regions to
measure temperature.
Stack pressure monitoring and pressure drop measurement
along the furnace height.
Special instruments such as infrared probes to monitor the
burden surface temperature, devices in the stack region to
measure individual layer thicknesses and local descent rate,
and tuyere probes to sample materials at the tuyeres level.
Mathematical models for charge distribution control, overall
heat and mass balance and interpretation of probe data.
Thank you
PART - II
IRONMAKING IN BLAST FURNACES
Mechanism of Reduction, Blast Furnace Reactions,
Zones in a BF
The reduction of iron oxides by CO and H
2
is
traditionally known as Indirect Reduction in blast
furnace ironmaking.

This is meant to distinguish it from the reduction by
solid carbon, which is called Direct Reduction.

Gas-solid reactions are much faster than reactions
between two solids. Therefore, maximum of indirect
reduction is the goal. Utilisation of hydrogen as a
reductant has definite advantage. Disadvantage is -----.
NOMENCLATURE OF REACTIONS IN A BF
BLAST FURNACE REACTIONS
As the solid charges descend downwards, major reactions may
be classified into the following categories viz.:
Removal of moisture from the raw materials.
Reduction of iron oxides by CO.
Gasification of carbon by CO
2
.

Dissociation of CaCO
3
(where raw limestone added).
Reduction of FeO by carbon.
Reduction of some other oxides of ore by carbon.
Combustion of coke and coal in front of tuyeres.
The outputs from the furnace are:
Molten iron (i.e. hot metal)
Molten slag
Gas at a temperature of around 200
O
C, containing CO,
CO
2
, N
2
, moisture and dust particles.
Boudouard reaction:
2CO = 2CO
2
+ C

Gasification reaction:
2C + O
2
= 2CO
Solution loss reaction:
C + CO
2
= 2CO
Endothermic reaction
Exothermic reaction
Water gas shift reaction:
CO + H
2
O = H
2
+ CO
2
Mild Exothermic reaction
Endothermic/ Exothermic
(beyond 1000C) reaction
IMPORTANT BLAST FURNACE REACTIONS
Transfer of reactant gas to the solid surface (CO or H
2
) across
the gas boundary layer around the piece of solid.
Inward diffusion of reactant gas through the pores of the solid
chemical reaction
Outward diffusion of the product gas (CO
2
or H
2
O) through the
pores.
FeO (s) + H
2
= Fe (s) + H
2
O (g)
FeO (s) + CO = Fe (s) + CO
2
(g)

3 Fe
2
O
3
(s) + CO (g) = 2 Fe
3
O
4
(s) + CO
2
(g)
Fe
3
O
4
(s) + CO (g) = 3 FeO (s) + CO
2
(g)
3 Fe
2
O
3
(s) + H
2
(g) = 2 Fe
3
O
4
(s) + H
2
O (g)
Fe
3
O
4
(s) + H
2
(g) = 3 FeO (s) + H
2
O (g)
Transfer of the product gas from the solid surface into the bulk
gas across the boundary layer.
MECHANISM OF IRON OXIDE REDUCTION
Reaction kinetics of iron ore reduction determines the
rate at which iron oxides are converted to metallic iron.
The rate of any chemical reaction increases as the
temperature increases. As a result, reaction kinetics is
not generally a matter of great concern in blast
furnaces.
IRON OXIDE REDUCTION
This is contrary to the reaction rates in DR processes.
Owing to lower temperatures, the reactions are slower.
Hence, the production rate of DR processes is
generally lower than that in blast furnaces.
Iron oxide reduction is complex because the oxide charged
undergoes a series of changes, step-by-step before the
conversion to the final product.
Chemical reactions are either homogeneous (if a single phase
is involved) or heterogeneous (if two or more phases are
involved).
The slowest step in the entire process chain determines the
overall reaction rate and is referred to as the rate controlling
step.
The solid-state reduction of iron oxides is heterogeneous,
involving solid and gas phases separated by an interface.
IRON OXIDE REDUCTION
For the chemical reactions to occur, the reactants must reach
the interface and the products must move away.
The movements of reactants and products are affected by
several factors any of which can be rate controlling.
RATE CONTROLLING STEPS IN IRON OXIDE
REDUCTION
Rate of iron oxide reduction depends on the rates of heat and mass transfer
across the gas-flow boundary layer at the outer surface of the solid phase.
When the reaction rate is controlled by this factor, it is known as "Boundary
Layer Control".
Rate of diffusion of reducing gas inwards and product gas outwards through
the reduced iron layer can control the rate of reduction. This phenomenon is
generally associated with large ore particles, and known as "Gaseous
Diffusion Control" or "Iron Pore Control."
Chemical reaction at the wustite-iron interface can be rate controlling. In such
a case, the rate of reduction per unit area of the remaining iron-oxide surface
is found to be constant with time. Mechanism is known as "Interfacial
Reaction Control" or "Phase Boundary Reaction Control".
When both gaseous diffusion control and interfacial reaction control
combine to influence the rate of reduction, the mechanism is referred to as
"Mixed Control."
SCHEMATIC OF IRON ORE REDUCTION
Topo-chemical type reduction
Partially reduced porous iron oxide
REDUCTION OF IRON OXIDES
Importance of porosity assessed by microscopic examination of reduced iron
oxide. Topo-chemical reduction has three concentric layers magnetite,
wustite, metallic iron each layer same shape as outer surface in case of
dense oxides. Porous oxides has similar structure in individual particles.
REDUCTION OF IRON OXIDE BY H
2
VS. CO
Reduction by hydrogen Reduction by CO
Initially, reduction by hydrogen is faster than carbon monoxide.
Magnetite reduced by hydrogen contains grains of wustite completely
enveloped in dense layers of metallic iron. In CO reduction, metallic iron
layers consist of almost pure pearlite.
Carbon can diffuse very rapidly in austenite so that at the interface between
austenite and wustite, carbon is available to complete the reduction. In case
of hydrogen, reduction is incomplete.
Solid-state diffusion of ferrous iron through wustite much greater than
gaseous diffusion of hydrogen or CO through ore particles. Therefore,
solid-state diffusion in the stack region is not the rate controlling step in BF
ironmaking.
STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN IRON OXIDE
REDUCTION
Hematite Magnetite Wustite Metallic iron
In hematite, oxygen atoms arranged in close-packed hexagon structure.
In magnetite and wustite, the structure is FCC.
In first stage of reduction, oxygen atoms undergo major readjustment.
Results in 25% increase in volume, opens-up structure, facilitates redn.
During magnetite to wustite transformation, oxygen lattice is unchanged.
Iron atoms diffuse to fill vacant sites in lattice; volume change is small.
Wustite has variable composition composition changes from equilibrium
with magnetite to equilibrium with metallic iron.
Nucleation and growth of iron crystals results in shrinkage and large increase
in porosity of the metallic phase.
Transformation of hematite to magnetite 25% increase in volume. Further, 7-
13% increase during transformation to wustite. Followed by shrinkage to
metal phase.
Total increase in volume during complete reduction of hematite:25-27%.
For magnetite ores, no volume increase; 4-5% shrinkage in final product.
Explains why reducibility of magnetite is very poor.
Often, magnetite first oxidised to hematite and then reduced.
REDUCTION
OF METAL
OXIDES
BY CO
REDUCTION OF IRON OXIDE BY CO
REDUCTION OF IRON OXIDE BY HYDROGEN
BF
NOMENCLATURE
H
e
i
g
h
t

o
f

B
F

ZONES IN A
BLAST FURNACE
Extends from the stock line to the mantle level. In this zone the burden is completely
solid. The charge gets heated from 200C at the stock line to 1100-1200C at the bottom
of the stack. Most of reduction occurs by gas-solid contact.
DETAILS OF THE ZONES
Stack: Wall slopes outwards in downwards direction
Belly: The cylindrical portion below the stack
Metallic burden begins to soften and fuse as it travels.
Bosh: Below the belly and sloping inwards in downwards direction
Burden begins to melt except coke. Gangue and flux combine to form the slag. The
furnace walls are either parallel and then taper down, or are entirely tapering down
resulting in reduction the sectional area by about 20-25% . This is because of decrease
in the apparent volume of the charge.
Tuyere or Combustion Zone: End of slope; parallel walls
Except central column of coke, entire charge is molten. Oxygen of the blast burns coke
to CO. Number of combustion zones, in front of each tuyere exists. Thus, there is a
runway or race-way in front of each tuyeres which is first horizontal and then
becomes vertical while expanding.
Hearth: Below the tuyere region and cylindrical
Some coke descends into hearth to form the deadman. Entire charge is molten and
stratifies into slag and metal layers tapped separately.
TUYERE AREA IN A BLAST FURNACE
MECHANISM OF SILICON REDUCTION
CONCEPT OF RAFT
Change in Operating Variable Change in RAFT ,
0
C
Blast temperature raised by 100
0
C +82
Blast oxygen raised by 1% +53
Blast moisture raised by 5g/Nm
3
-28
1% methane added to blast -56
From sensible heat of the flame, its temperature is calculated.
This is known as Raceway Adiabatic Flame Temperature (RAFT).
Heat content of flame = mass of gas in the flame
average specific heat of gas
(RAFT 298)
BF productivity is defined as tonnes of hot metal produced per
day per cubic metre of inner/working volume.

Productivity can be increased by:
Screening of solid charges before charging into the furnace to
eliminate fines below a certain size
Agglomeration of fines by sintering, pelletising
Proper top charging device to make the distribution of burden
size as uniform as possible in any horizontal section.
Use of better quality coke.
Use of higher hot blast temperature.
Use of oxygen enriched blast.
Use of higher top pressure.
Use of superior quality iron oxide burden.
Improved facilities for metal and slag evacuation.
PRODUCTIVITY OF BLAST FURNACES
PRODUCTIVITY AS FUNCTION OF SLAG RATE
ACCEPTABLE COKE FOR BLAST FURNACES
Room temperature strength : M
10
7.0 (max.)
High temperature strength: CSR 64 (min.), CRI 25
(max.).
Chemistry: Ash 15-17% min., Alkali 0.35% max.
Size : Suit iron oxide feed. Size at tuyere level?
Suitability assessed in terms of:
Room temperature strength
High temperature strength
Chemistry
Size
Reactivity
For blast furnaces in India, acceptable values are:
Lower productivity of Indian furnaces essentially on
account of poor coke. Emphasis on coke quality.
TYPICAL COST BREAK UP FOR HOT METAL
(25.4%) Ore &
Scrap
(1.2%) Fluxes
(47.4%)
Coke
(3.7%) Coal &
Tar injection
(4.7%) Blowing
cost
(5.1%) Others
(6.2%) Labour
& Admn.
(2.5%)
Maintenance
(2.5%) Relining
(1.3%)
Refractories
PART - III
SMELTING REDUCTION
ALTERNATIVE METHOD OF IRONMAKING
Year
Coke
rate,
kg/thm
Injectant,
kg/thm
Total
reductant,
kg/thm
Comments
1950 1000 0 1000 Lean local ores
1965 600 0 600 Rich seaborne ores
1970 525 50 575 Oil injection/high blast
temperature/ oxygen enrichment
1980 500 50 550 High top pressure/burden
distribution and permeability
control
1990 400 125 525 Coal injection/improved sinter
coke quality
2000 325 175 500 Increased coal/gas/oil injection
2010 250 250 500 Continued use of metallics in the
burden
PROGRESSIVE REDUCTION IN BF COKE
CONSUMPTION OVER THE YEARS
DEPENDENCE OF BLAST FURNACES ON COKE
Parameter Case A Case B Case C Case D
Coal, kg/thm 0 106 149 173
Coke, kg/thm 482 376 334 305
Total fuel, kg/thm 482 482 483 478
Production, t/m
2
hearth
area/ d
59.4 59.2 61.1 58.8
Blast temperature,
o
C 1129 1141 1159 1177
Humidity, g/Nm
3
30 16 10 6
Oxygen in blast, % 21 21 22.4 22.4
Gas utilisation, % 49.2 50.6 51.0 48.2
Hot metal temperature,
o
C 1487 1475 1478 1482
Si in hot metal, % 0.24 0.27 0.28 0.33
FORECAST OF TECHNOLOGIES TO BE
ADOPTED FOR HOT METAL PRODUCTION
Conventional BF route
New SR technologies
Non-coking
coal Fine ore
Pellets
Lump ore
Sinter
Pellets
Lump ore
Coking coal
2000
2025-2030
YEAR
100






75







50





25
Future
Fine
ores
Scrap
substitutes
Non-coking
coal, NG,
synthetic
gases
Lump ore,
sinter,
pellets
Coke from
metallurgical coal
and PCI
Scrap
DRI using NG,
non- coking
coal

SR hot metal
using non-
coking coal

Lump ore
Coke from
metallurgical
coal
Conventional
Scrap
Recent
EMERGING TRENDS IN INPUTS TO IRON/STEELMAKING
FUNDAMENTALS OF SMELTING REDUCTION
(Critical in economics of
all SR processes)
Pre-Reduction
Pre-reduction
Unit
Off-Gas
Pre-reduced Ore
Smelting
Reduction
Vessel
Post Combustion
Final Reduction
Melting
Coal Gasification
Coal
Hot Reducing Gas
Oxygen/Air
Hot Metal
Iron Ore/
Pellets
Pre-reduction Degree, Extent of Post Combustion and Heat
Transfer Efficiency are critical for success of all SR processes.
Process Oxide Feed Reductant Product
Blast furnace
including mini
blast furnace
Lump ore,
sinter, pellets
Coke, coal,
oil, tar,
natural gas
Hot metal
essentially for BOF
steelmaking
Smelting
reduction
Ore fines,
lump ore,
waste iron
oxides
Coal,
oxygen,
electricity
Hot metal
(synthetic hot
metal) for EAF /
EOF steelmaking
RAW MATERIALS USED IN BLAST FURNACES
AND IN SMELTING REDUCTION
Ore
Slag
O
2

Coal
Metal
Reduction
and
melting
Gas
Single stage
DRI
Slag
O
2

Coal
Metal
Gas
Reduction
Melting
Ore Gas
DRI
Slag
O
2

Coal
Metal
Gas
Reduction
Melting
Ore Gas
Gasification
Gas Coke
Coke
Three stage
Two stage
FLOWSHEET OF SINGLE STAGE, TWO STAGE
AND THREE STAGE SR PROCESSES
SR involves both reduction and smelting, i.e. melting
accompanied by chemical reaction(s).
In an ideal SR reactor, in the strictest sense, all the reduction
reactions should take place in the liquid state in a single step.
Any SR process involves the extraction of metal values from the
ore following liquid phase reduction by non-coking coal.
In actual practice, most SR processes utilise two steps the
removal of oxygen from the ore in the solid state to varying
extents in step one, followed by removal of the remaining
oxygen in liquid phase reduction reactions in step two.
Compared with DR processes, the principal advantage of high
temperature operation in SR processes is: faster rates of
reaction and prevention of sticking problems associated with
solid-state reactions (intrinsic in DR processes).
SALIENT FEATURES OF SR (1)
Smelting reduction processes are thus either two-step
processes with separate pre-reduction and smelting
reduction steps (such as Corex and HIsmelt),
Simpler one-step processes involving simultaneous
reduction and smelting still not fully proven.
All SR processes consume fairly large volumes of coal
that generates large amount of export gas, the effective
utilisation of the generated by-product gas is extremely
important.
Generally, the use of export gas makes or breaks the
cost structure of SR processes .
SALIENT FEATURES OF SR (2)
Unless the net export gas from any Corex plant can be
utilised (extent of generation 1650 Nm
3
/thm; calorific
value 7500KJ/Nm
3
) the process itself becomes totally
uneconomical.
If no credit is given to the off- gas, the cost of the hot
metal made can be as much as 50% higher than blast
furnace hot metal.
Adequate credit can be obtained by selling co-
generated electrical power from the Corex off gas.
Another use of the export gas is in shaft furnace, DRI
production adjacent to the Corex furnace.
SALIENT FEATURES OF SR (3)
REDUCTION STEPS IN SR
Reduction by solid carbon

Reduction by carbon dissolved in Iron

Reduction of molten FeO by CO
A liquid boundary layer is expected to exist on the slag side of
the slag / carbon interface, FeO must be transported to the
nucleation site in the following manner:

FeO (l) + C (s) = Fe (l) + CO (g)
FeO (bulk) transported to FeO (slag /gas interface)

A halo is formed, after which the following steps come into
play:

FeO + CO = Fe + CO
2
(at gas / slag interface)
CO
2
(gas /slag interface) transported to CO
2
(carbon /gas
interface).

CO
2
+ C = 2CO (at carbon / gas interface)CO (carbon / gas
interface) transported to CO (gas / slag interface).
REDUCTION OF SLAGS BY SOLID CARBON
REDUCTION OF SLAGS BY CARBON
DISSOLVED IN IRON
Taking desulphurisation as an example, a three step
mechanism has been proposed:

FeS(iron) = FeS (slag)

FeS (slag) + CaO (slag) = FeO (slag) + CaS(slag)

FeO (slag) + C (iron) = Fe(l) + CO(g)
REDUCTION OF MOLTEN FeO BY CO
Reduction rate of slags is independent of the FeO
concentration in the range 67.7 to 48.0%.
FeO less than 48%, the reduction is dependent on the
fraction reacted and the partial pressure of CO.
Reduction rate of iron oxide by CO follows a first order
rate law for the reversible reduction of stoichiometric FeO.
The rate equation is:
(R / Ao) = exp (-32300 / RT 1.37). (1.0 - 0.7aSiO2). (aFeO. pCO - aFe. pCOk)
where, R = Rate constant, mol/cm2 .s
Ao = Reaction surface area, cm2
T = Reaction temperature, K
The activation energy was determined to be 135 kJ/ mol.
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Fastmelt Hismelt Corex Redsmelt Blast
Furnace
E
n
e
r
g
y
,

G
J
/
t
h
m
Gas Credit
Net Energy
NET ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND GAS CREDIT
OF SR PROCESSES vis-a-vis BF
Vertical Shafts
MBF Capacity : 30,000-1,125,000 tpa (covers very wide range)
Corex 5 operating plants, Capacity : 300,000-900,000 tpa
First and leading SR process. Very high volumes of off-gas; some coke often
used. Coal properties can be varied over a small range (Indian coal?)
Finex Capacity : 1.2-1.5 mtpa. Process development complete. Very
promising.
Tecnored Capacity : 150,000 tpa. Process still under development
MAJOR SMELTING PROCESSES
ITmk3 Capacity : 0.5 mtpa. Slag separation by partial melting is unique.
Bath Smelting Processes
HIsmelt Capacity : 600,000-1,200,000 tpa. Process almost ready.
Ausmelt Capacity : up to 2.5 mtpa. Process not proven.
Romelt Capacity : 200,000-1,000,000 tpa. Russian process with tremendous
promise, but no plant despite efforts, including in India and Japan
Rotary Hearth Furnace (RHF)
RHF Combined with Melting / Smelting
Inmetco Capacity - 60,000 tpa. Suitable for zinc-bearing iron ores.
FastMelt 2 operating plants mainly for smelting solid wastes from ISPs.
Capacity 150,000-1,000,000 tpa
COMMERCIALISED SR PROCESSES
Corex Many operating units; most popular SR process.
Typical iron oxide
Lump ore Pellets Sinter
Fe
total
62 - 65 62 - 65 50 - 55
Grain size, mm 8 - 20 8 - 16 10 - 30
HIsmelt Nucor, Rio Tinto, Mitsubishi and Shougang (of PR of
China) agreed to construct a 0.8 Mtpa plant at Kwinana in
Western Australia after pilot plant tests were completed at the
same location. The plant had produced more than 37,000 tonnes
of hot metal in total till March 2006. Has been stopped thereafter.
FLOW SHEET OF THE COREX PROCESS
It has outstanding environmental superiority in comparison with
the blast furnace process in terms of generation of dust, SOx,
NOx, phenol, cyanides, etc.
SOME KEY FEATURES OF COREX
Is a shaft furnace-based process. It can accept high alkali
containing ores without any build-up inside the reactor.
Specific melting capacity is higher than in blast furnaces-
productivity of the order of 3-3.5 t/m
3
/d can be achieved.
The process is capable of operating at 50-115% of its nominal
capacity.
It takes only half an hour to stop the plant and four hours to
restart it, whenever required.
Hot metal quality is comparable with blast furnaces (C=4.0-4.5%,
Si=0.30-0.80%, S=0.02-0.09%, P depends on inputs).
FLOW SHEET OF THE FINEX PROCESS
Posco developed Finex process to utilise iron ore/non-coking
coal fines not suitable for charging to their Corex plant.
Corex in Posco uneconomical owing to restrictions on coal and
iron oxide size (top size and under size). Also, often required
10% coke to ensure hearth permeability.

Finex actually able to utilise iron ore in the form of fines.

After fluidised bed reduction, fine DRI is hot briquetted before
melting in a melter gasifier (similar to Corex).

Non-coking coal is also briquetted before use in melter gasifier.

Hot metal composition same as BF.

Range of complete scale of production yet to be established.
SOME KEY FEATURES OF FINEX
Finex is certainly of interest to ISPs. Whether it can be
used to supply limited tonnages of hot metal to EAFs?
FLOW SHEET OF HISMELT PROCESS
HISMELT FLOW OVERVIEW
Incorporates many BF features hot blast stoves, air blast, etc.
Can be single stage process; better, with separate pre-reduction.
Pre-reduction of iron oxide and oxygen enrichment of hot air
(1200C) blast provide substantial productivity enhancement.
Hot metal contains 4.3 0.15% carbon, phosphorus and silicon
levels are extremely low viz. < 0.05% P and <0.05 Si%.
Process can use high phosphorus iron ore can be of
significance in India since many Indian ores have high phos.
Coals with 50-70% FC, 10-38% VM and 5-12% ash have been
used in Pilot/Demo plant. Typical coal rate reported 640-690
kg/thm.
Utilisation of export gas not as critical as in the case of
processes like Corex on account of in-bath smelting.
SOME KEY FEATURES OF HISMELT
Hot metal production economics under Indian conditions still not
proven. Demo plant not proven on sustained basis at full capacity.
PROCESS FLOW SHEET OF ITmk3
SOME KEY FEATURES OF ITmk3
First step produces iron nuggets in a very short reduction time
(10-12 min) along with some slag removal in a RHF.
High-purity iron nuggets contain 96-97% iron and 2.5-3.0% C,
0.05 S, i.e. nearly same composition as blast furnace pig iron.
Coal consumption reported to be 500 kg/t nuggets.
The process is flexible as far as the type of iron ore that can be
used. Magnetite, haematite as well as pellets made of taconite
(low-grade iron ore found in USA) have been processed.
Emits at least 20% less carbon dioxide than blast furnaces.
Overall less NOx, SOx and particulate matter emissions.
Easy start-up, shut down and change in production rate.
Over last 10-12 years has gone through laboratory, small
pilot plant and demonstration plant testing. Nuggets melted
in EAFs. A commercial plant (0.5 mtpa) Mesabi Nuggets at
North-Eastern Minnesota, USA has been started. Could be of
immense interest to Indian Secondary Producers in future.
SUMMARY OF SMELTING REDUCTION
SR designates processes in which iron oxide is reduced at high
temperature to liquid iron essentially using non-coking coal and
oxygen.
SR processes utilise several distinct thermo-chemical
configurations.
In all SR processes, a substantial portion of the iron oxide
charged enters into the slag phase and is reduced by solid
carbon particles, gaseous CO, and carbon dissolved in iron.
SR reactions are by nature quite complex major reasons are
elevated temperature, multiple phases and intense bath
turbulence.
It is essential to optimise post-combustion ratio (PCR), degree
of pre-reduction, and heat transfer efficiency (HTE).
Ideal SR process should be of single-stage configuration to
recover iron from iron ore directly through liquid phase reduction.
THANK YOU
BF and SR
Ironmaking
IIT, Kharagpur, 26
th
October 2010