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Figure 46.

1
Figure 46.2
Figure 46.3-1
Asexual reproduction
Female
Sexual reproduction
Generation 1
Female
Figure 46.3-2
Asexual reproduction
Female
Sexual reproduction
Generation 1
Female
Male
Generation 2
Figure 46.3-3
Asexual reproduction
Female
Sexual reproduction
Generation 1
Female
Male
Generation 3
Generation 2
Figure 46.3-4
Asexual reproduction
Female
Sexual reproduction
Generation 1
Female
Male
Generation 4
Generation 3
Generation 2
Figure 46.4
Figure 46.5
(a) A. uniparens females
(b) The sexual behavior of A. uniparens is
correlated with the cycle of ovulation.
Estradiol
Ovulation Ovulation
Progesterone
Time
Female Female Male-
like
Male-
like
B
e
h
a
v
i
o
r

H
o
r
m
o
n
e

l
e
v
e
l

O
v
a
r
y

s
i
z
e

Figure 46.5a
(a) A. uniparens females
Figure 46.5b
(b)
The sexual behavior of A. uniparens is
correlated with the cycle of ovulation.
Estradiol
Ovulation Ovulation
Progesterone
Time
Female Female Male-
like
Male-
like
B
e
h
a
v
i
o
r

H
o
r
m
o
n
e

l
e
v
e
l

O
v
a
r
y

s
i
z
e

Figure 46.6
Figure 46.7
Figure 46.8
(a) Male fruit fly (b) Female fruit fly
Accessory
gland
Ejaculatory
duct
Penis and
claspers
Testis
Vas
deferens
Seminal
vesicle
Ovary
Accessory
gland
Oviduct
Spermatheca
Uterus
Vulva
Figure 46.8a
(a) Male fruit fly
Accessory
gland
Ejaculatory
duct
Penis and
claspers
Testis
Vas
deferens
Seminal
vesicle
Figure 46.8b
(b) Female fruit fly
Ovary
Accessory
gland
Oviduct
Spermatheca
Uterus
Vulva
Figure 46.9
RESULTS
Control;
not
remated
Remated to
wild-type
males
Remated to
no-sperm
males
Remated to
no-ejaculate
males
30
20
10
0
P
e
r
c
e
n
t
a
g
e

o
f

f
e
m
a
l
e
s

l
a
c
k
i
n
g

s
p
e
r
m

i
n

s
p
e
r
m
a
t
h
e
c
a

Figure 46.10
(Rectum)
Cervix
Vagina
Major vestibular
(Bartholins) gland
Vaginal opening
Oviduct
Ovary
Uterus
(Urinary bladder)
(Pubic bone)
Urethra
Body
Glans
Prepuce
Clitoris
Labia minora
Labia majora
Ovaries
Oviduct
Follicles
Corpus luteum
Uterine wall
Endometrium
Vagina
Uterus
Cervix
Figure 46.10a
(Rectum)
Cervix
Vagina
Major vestibular
(Bartholins) gland
Vaginal opening
Oviduct
Ovary
Uterus
(Urinary bladder)
(Pubic bone)
Urethra
Body
Glans
Prepuce
Clitoris
Labia minora
Labia majora
Figure 46.10b
Ovaries
Oviduct
Follicles
Corpus luteum
Uterine wall
Endometrium
Vagina
Uterus
Cervix
Figure 46.11
Seminal
vesicle
(behind
bladder)
Urethra
Scrotum
(Urinary bladder)
Prostate gland
Bulbourethral gland
Erectile tissue of penis
Vas deferens
Epididymis
Testis
Seminal vesicle
(Rectum)
Vas deferens
Ejaculatory duct
Prostate gland
Bulbourethral gland Vas deferens
Epididymis
Testis
Scrotum
(Urinary bladder)
(Urinary duct)
(Pubic bone)
Erectile
tissue
Urethra
Glans
Prepuce
Penis
Figure 46.11a
Seminal
vesicle
(behind
bladder)
Urethra
Scrotum
(Urinary bladder)
Prostate gland
Bulbourethral gland
Erectile tissue of penis
Vas deferens
Epididymis
Testis
Figure 46.11b
Seminal vesicle
(Rectum)
Vas deferens
Ejaculatory duct
Prostate gland
Bulbourethral gland
Vas deferens
Epididymis
Testis
Scrotum
(Urinary bladder)
(Urinary duct)
(Pubic bone)
Erectile
tissue
Urethra
Glans
Prepuce
Penis
Figure 46.12a
Epididymis
Seminiferous tubule
Testis
Cross section of
seminiferous tubule
Sertoli cell
nucleus
Lumen of
seminiferous tubule
Plasma
membrane
Tail
Neck
Midpiece Head
Mitochondria
Nucleus
Acrosome
Primordial germ cell in embryo
Mitotic divisions
Spermatogonial
stem cell
Spermatogonium
Mitotic divisions
Mitotic divisions
Primary spermatocyte
Meiosis I
Meiosis II
Spermatids
(two stages)
Secondary spermatocyte
Early
spermatid
Sperm cell
Differentiation
(Sertoli cells
provide nutrients)
2n
2n
2n
n n
n n n n
n n n n
Figure 46.12aa
Epididymis Seminiferous
tubule
Testis
Cross section of
seminiferous tubule
Spermato-
gonium
Primary
spermatocyte
Spermatids
(two stages)
Secondary
spermatocyte
Sperm cell
Sertoli cell
nucleus
Lumen of
seminiferous tubule
Figure 46.12ab
Primordial germ cell in embryo
Mitotic divisions
Spermatogonial stem cell
Spermatogonium
Mitotic divisions
Mitotic divisions
Primary spermatocyte
Meiosis I
Meiosis II
Secondary spermatocyte
Early
spermatid
Sperm cell
Differentiation
(Sertoli cells
provide nutrients)
2n
2n
2n
n n
n n n n
n n n n
Figure 46.12ac
Plasma
membrane
Tail
Neck
Midpiece Head
Mitochondria
Nucleus
Acrosome
Figure 46.12b
2n
2n
n
n
n
n
Ovary
Primordial germ cell
Mitotic divisions
Mitotic divisions
Oogonium
In embryo
Primary oocyte
(present at birth), arrested
in prophase of meiosis I
Completion of meiosis I
and onset of meiosis II
Secondary oocyte,
arrested at metaphase of
meiosis II
First
polar
body
Ovulation, sperm entry
Completion of meiosis II
Second
polar
body
Primary
oocyte
within
follicle
Growing
follicle
Mature follicle
Ruptured
follicle
Ovulated
secondary
oocyte
Corpus luteum
Degenerating
corpus luteum
Fertilized egg
Figure 46.12ba
Ovary
Primary
oocyte
within
follicle
Growing
follicle
Mature follicle
Ruptured
follicle
Ovulated
secondary
oocyte
Corpus luteum
Degenerating
corpus luteum
Figure 46.12bb
2n
2n
n
n
n
n
Primordial germ cell
Mitotic divisions
Mitotic divisions
Oogonium
In embryo
Primary oocyte
(present at birth), arrested
in prophase of meiosis I
Completion of meiosis I
and onset of meiosis II
Secondary oocyte,
arrested at metaphase of
meiosis II
First
polar
body
Ovulation, sperm entry
Completion of meiosis II
Second
polar
body
Fertilized egg
Figure 46.13
Control by hypothalamus (a)
Hypothalamus
GnRH
Anterior pituitary
FSH LH
Inhibited by combination of
estradiol and progesterone
Stimulated by high levels
of estradiol
Inhibited by low levels of
estradiol



10
9
8 7
6
5
4
3
2
1
(b) Pituitary gonadotropins
in blood
LH
FSH
FSH and LH stimulate
follicle to grow
6
LH surge triggers
ovulation
Ovarian cycle
Growing follicle
Maturing
follicle
Corpus
luteum
Degenerating
corpus luteum
Follicular phase Ovulation Luteal phase
Estradiol secreted
by growing follicle in
increasing amounts
(c)
Progesterone and
estradiol secreted
by corpus luteum
(d) Ovarian hormones
in blood
Estradiol
Peak causes
LH surge
(see )
Progesterone
Progesterone and estra-
diol promote thickening
of endometrium
Estradiol level
very low
(e) Uterine (menstrual) cycle
Endometrium
Menstrual flow phase Proliferative phase Secretory phase
D
a
y
s

28 25 20 15 14 10 5 0
Figure 46.13a
Control by hypothalamus (a)
Hypothalamus
GnRH
Anterior pituitary
FSH LH
Inhibited by combination of
estradiol and progesterone
Stimulated by high levels
of estradiol
Inhibited by low levels of
estradiol



2
1
Figure 46.13b
(b) Pituitary gonadotropins
in blood
LH
FSH
FSH and LH stimulate
follicle to grow
LH surge triggers
ovulation
Ovarian cycle
Growing follicle
Maturing
follicle
Corpus
luteum
Degenerating
corpus luteum
Follicular phase Ovulation Luteal phase
(c)
28 25 20 15 14 10 5 0
D
a
y
s

3
6
7 8
Figure 46.13c
Estradiol secreted
by growing follicle in
increasing amounts
Progesterone and
estradiol secreted
by corpus luteum
(d) Ovarian hormones
in blood
Estradiol
Peak causes
LH surge
(see )
Progesterone
Progesterone and estra-
diol promote thickening
of endometrium
Estradiol level
very low
(e)
Uterine (menstrual) cycle
Endometrium
Menstrual flow phase Proliferative phase Secretory phase
D
a
y
s

28 25 20 15 14 10 5 0
4
5
6
9
10
(e)
Figure 46.14
Hypothalamus



GnRH
Anterior pituitary
FSH LH
Sertoli cells Leydig cells
Inhibin Spermatogenesis Testosterone
Testis
N
e
g
a
t
i
v
e

f
e
e
d
b
a
c
k

N
e
g
a
t
i
v
e

f
e
e
d
b
a
c
k

Figure 46.15
5
4
1
2
3 Cleavage
Fertilization
Ovary
Ovulation
Uterus
Cleavage
continues
Implantation
Endometrium
(a) From ovulation to implantation
(b) Implantation of blastocyst
Endometrium
Cavity
Inner cell
mass
Blastocyst
Trophoblast
Figure 46.16
Placenta
Uterus
Umbilical
cord
Chorionic
villus,
containing
fetal
capillaries
Maternal
blood pool
Maternal
arteries
Maternal
veins
Maternal
portion of
placenta
Fetal
portion of
placenta
(chorion)
Umbilical
arteries
Umbilical vein
Umbilical cord
Fetal venule Fetal arteriole
Figure 46.17
(a) 5 weeks (b) 14 weeks (c) 20 weeks
Figure 46.17a
(a) 5 weeks
Figure 46.17b
(b) 14 weeks
Figure 46.17c
(c) 20 weeks
Figure 46.18
Estradiol


from
ovaries
Activates oxytocin
receptors on uterus
Oxytocin
from fetus
and mothers
posterior pituitary
Prostaglandins
P
o
s
i
t
i
v
e

f
e
e
d
b
a
c
k

Stimulates uterus
to contract
Stimulates
placenta to make
Stimulate more
contractions
of uterus
Figure 46.19
Dilation of the cervix
2
1
3
Placenta
Umbilical cord
Uterus
Cervix
Expulsion: delivery of the infant
Delivery of the placenta
Uterus
Umbilical cord
Placenta
(detaching)
Figure 46.19a
Dilation of the cervix 1
Placenta
Umbilical cord
Uterus
Cervix
Figure 46.19b
Expulsion: delivery of the infant
2
Figure 46.19c
Delivery of the placenta
Uterus
Umbilical
cord
Placenta
(detaching)
3
Figure 46.20
Male Female
Method Method Event Event
Vasectomy
Abstinence
Condom
Coitus
interruptus
(very high
failure rate)
Production
of sperm
Production of
primary oocytes
Sperm transport
down male
duct system
Oocyte
development
and ovulation
Combination
birth control
pill (or injection,
patch, or
vaginal ring)
Abstinence
Female condom
Sperm
deposited
in vagina
Capture of the
oocyte by the
oviduct
Sperm
movement
through female
reproductive
tract
Transport
of oocyte in
oviduct
Tubal ligation
Spermicides;
diaphragm;
progestin alone
(as minipill
or injection)
Meeting of sperm and oocyte
in oviduct
Union of sperm and egg
Implantation of blastocyst
in endometrium
Morning-after
pill; intrauterine
device (IUD)
Figure 46.20a
Male Female
Method Method Event
Event
Vasectomy
Abstinence
Condom
Coitus
interruptus
(very high
failure rate)
Production
of sperm
Production of
primary oocytes
Sperm transport
down male
duct system
Oocyte
development
and ovulation
Combination
birth control
pill (or injection,
patch, or
vaginal ring)
Abstinence
Female condom
Sperm
deposited
in vagina
Capture of the
oocyte by the
oviduct
Tubal ligation
Spermicides;
diaphragm;
progestin alone
(as minipill
or injection)
Figure 46.20b
Sperm
movement
through female
reproductive
tract
Transport
of oocyte in
oviduct
Meeting of sperm and oocyte
in oviduct
Union of sperm and egg
Implantation of blastocyst
in endometrium
Morning-after
pill; intrauterine
device (IUD)
Male Female
Method Method Event Event
Figure 46.UN01
Human gametogenesis
Spermatogenesis Oogenesis
Primary
spermatocyte
Primary
oocyte
Secondary
spermatocytes
Secondary
oocyte
Polar body
Spermatids
Sperm
Polar body
Fertilized egg
2n
2n
n
n
n
n
n n
n n n n
n n n n
Figure 46.UN02