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PAVEMENT DESIGN

Highway Engineering
Pavement Types
1. Flexible pavement
2. Rigid pavement
3. Variation of Pavement Types
1. Soil cement and stabilized bases that have
cemented aggregate
2. Composite pavements(made of flexible and
rigid layers)
3. Continuously reinforced pavements
4. Post-tensioned pavements
Pavement function
To distribute the traffic load stresses to the soil
(subgrade) at a magnitude that will not shear
or distort the soil.

Typical soil bearing capacity
Can be less than 50 psi (345 kPa)
Can be as low as 2 to 3 psi (14 to 21 kPa)
If soil is saturated with water it can be very low
Typical weight of vehicle
Automobile = 3500 lb (15.5 kN), tire pressure
=35 psi (241 kPa)
Tractor-semi-trailer truck = 80 kips (355.8 kN),
tire pressure =100 psi (690 kPa)


Flexible Pavement
Is constructed with asphaltic cement and
aggregates and usually consists of several
layers( subgrade, subbase, base, and
wearing)
Subgrade-the soil itself, he upper 6-8 (152-
203 mm) is usually scarified and blended to
provide a uniform material before it is
compacted.
Flexible pavement
Subbase crushed aggregates (rock)
Base crush aggregates of higher strength
than the subbase, w/c either
stabilized/unstabilized with a cementing
material.
Wearing asphaltic cement( asphalt cement +
aggregates), its purpose is to protect the base
layer from wheel abrasion and to waterproof
the entire road structure.
Flexible Pavement
Rigid pavement
Is constructed with PCC and aggregates.
Use of base layer is optional depending on the
properties of the subgrade.
Transverse contraction joints are built into the
pavement to control cracking due to shrinkage of
concrete during the curing process.
Load transfer devices (dowels) are placed in the
joints to minimize deflections and reduce stresses
near the edges of the slabs.
Slab thickness = 8-12 (200 to 300 mm)
Typical Rigid Pavement
Pavement system design:
Principles for flexible pavement
Primary function of the pavement structure is to
reduce and distribute the surface stresses (contact tire
pressure) to an acceptable level at the subgrade ( to a
level that prevents permanent deformation).
Flexible pavement reduces the stresses by distributing
the traffic wheel loads over greater and greater areas,
through the individual layers, until the stress at
subgrade is at an acceptable low level. The traffic
loads are transmitted to the subgrade by aggregate to
aggregate particle contact.Confining pressures(lateral
forces due to material weight) in the subbase and
base layers increase the bearing strength of these
materials. A cone of distributed loads reduces and
spreads the stresses to the subgrade.

Load Distribution
Calculation of Flexible pavement
stresses and deflection
Boussinesq theory assumes that the pavement is one layer thick and the
material is elastic, homogeneous, and isotropic.





Where

z

= stress at a point in kPa

P = wheel load in N

z = depth of the point in question in mm

K = variable defined as






Boussinesq Theory
Calculation of Flexible pavement
stresses and deflection
Considering the tire foot print,


Where
a = equivalent load radius of the tire footprint
in mm
P = tire load in N, and
p = tire pressure in kPa
Ahlvin and Ulerys Equation


For radial-horizontal stress(w/c is caused of
pavement cracking,


The equation for deflection


Ahlvin and Ulerys Equation
Where,

z
= vertical stress in psi/kPa

r
= radial-horizontal stress in psi/kPa

z
= deflection, at depth z in inches/mm
p = pressure due to tire load in psi/kPa
= Poisson ratio
E = modulus of elasticity in psi/kPa
A,B,C,F, and H + function values, as presented in Table 4.1, that depend on
z/a and, the depth in radii and offset distance in radii, respectively,
Where
z = depth of a point in question in mm
r = radial distance in mm from the center of the circular load area to point in
question and,
a = equivalent load radius of the tire footprint in mm
Function A
Function B
Function C
Function F
Function H
Example 1
A tire with 100 psi air pressure distributes a
load over an area with a circular contact
radius, a, of 5. The pavement was
constructed with a material that has a modulus
of elasticity of 50 ksi and a Poisson ratio of
0.45. Calculate the radial-horizontal stress and
deflection at a point a depth of 20 and a radial
distance of 10 from the center of the tire load.
(Use the Ahlvin and Ulery equations)
AASHTO Flexible-Pavement
Design Procedure
Flexible Pavement Design Equation,





Where,
W
18
= 18 kip equivalent single axle load
Z
R
= reliability( z-statistics from the standard normal curve)
S
O
= overall standard deviation of traffic
SN = structural number
PSI = loss in serviceability from the time the pavement is new until it reaches its
TSI
M
R
= soil resilient modulus of the subgrade in psi
AASHTO Flexible-Pavement
Design Procedure
M
R
= 1500 x CBR
Coefficient of 1500 is used for CBR values less than
10
CBR = ratio of load bearing capacity of the soil to the
load bearing capacity of a high quality aggregate,
multiplied by 100
SN = a
1
D
1
+ a
2
D
2
M
2
+ a
3
D
3
M
3
a
1
,a
2
,a
3
= structural layer coefficients of the wearing
surface, base, and subbase layers
D
1
,D
2
,D
3
= thickness of the wearing surface, base,
and subbase layers in inches
M
2
,M
3
= drainage coefficients for the base and
subbase
Example 2
A pavement is to be designed to last 10 years. The initial PSI is 4.2 and the
TSI (the final PSI) is determined to be 2.5. The subgrade has a soil resilient
modulus of 15 ksi. Reliability is 95% with an overall standard deviation of
0.4. For design, the daily car, pickup truck, and light van traffic is 30,000,
and the daily truck traffic consists of 1000 passes of single-unit trucks with
two single axles and 350 passes of tractor semi-trailer trucks with single,
tandem, and triple axles. The axle weights are
Cars, pickups, light vans = two 2-kip single axles
Single-unit truck = 8-kip steering, single axle
= 22-kip drive, single axle
tractor semi-trailer truck = 10-kip steering, single axle
= 16-kip drive, tandem axle
= 44-kip trailer, triple axle
M
2
and M
3
are equal to 1.0 for the materials in the pavement structure.
Four inches of hot-mix asphalt is to be used as the wearing surface and 10
of crushed stone as the subbase. Determine the thickness required for the
base if soil cement is the material to be used.
Example 3
A flexible pavement is constructed with 4 of hot-mix
asphalt wearing surface, 8 of emulsion/aggregate-
bituminous base, and 8 of crushed stone subbase.
The subgrade has a soil resilient modulus of 10 ksi,
and M
2
and M
3
are equal to 1.0 for the materials in the
pavement structure. The overall standard deviation is
0.5, the initial PSI is 4.5, and the TSI is 2.5. The daily
traffic has 1080 20-kip single axles, 400 24-kip single
axles, and 680 40-kip tandem axles. How many years
would you estimate this pavement would last(how
long before its PSI drops below a TSI of 2.5) if you
wanted to be 90% confident that your estimate was
not too high, and if you wanted to be 99% confident
that your estimate was not too high?
Pavement System Design:
Principles for Rigid Pavements
Calculation of Rigid-Pavement Stresses and
Deflections
Westergaard equations
= p/k
= slab deflection in inches
p = tire pressure in psi
k = modulus of subgrade reaction in psi
Ioannides, Thompson, and
Barenberg
Interior loading,








Where

i
= interior bending stress in psi

i
= interior deflection in inches
P = total load in lb
= Poisson ratio
Ioannides, Thompson, and
Barenberg
h = slab thickness in inches
k = modulus of subgrade reaction in psi
a = radius of circular load in inches (the tire footprint radius)
= Eulers constant, equal to 0.577215, and
l = radius of relative stiifness ( a measure of the slab thickness in
inches), defined as



Where
E = modulus of elasticity in psi






Ioannides, Thompson, and
Barenberg
For edge loading,

Ioannides, Thompson, and
Barenberg
For the corner loading,






Where
a
l
= distance to the point of action of the resulting
load on a common angle bisection at the slab
corner equal to 2 x a
Example 4
A 15-kip wheel load is placed on a portland
cement concrete (PCC) slab that is 10 thick.
The concrete has a modulus of elasticity of
4,500,000 psi with a Poisson ratio of 0.18. The
modulus of subgrade reaction is 200 pci. Tire
pressure is 100 psi. Using the revised
Westergaard equations, calculate the stress
and deflection if the load is placed on the
corner of the slab.
The AASHTO Rigid Pavement
Procedure
The regression equation used to determine the
thickness of a Rigid Pavement PCC slab





D = PCC slab thickness in inches
S
c
= concrete modulus of rupture
C
d
= drainage coefficient
J = load transfer coefficient




Example 5
A rigid pavement is to be designed to provide a service life of 20 years and
has an initial PSI of 4.4 and a TSI of 2.5. The modulus of subgrade reaction
is determined to be 300pci. For design, the daily car, pickup truck, and light
van traffic is 20,000; and the daily truck traffic consists of 200 passes of
single-unit trucks with single and tandem axles, and 410 passes of tractor
semi-trailer trucks with single, tandem, and triple axles. The axle weights
are
Cars, pickup, light vans = two 2-kip single axle
Single-unit trucks = 10-kip steering, single axle
= 22-kip drive, tandem axle
Tractor semi-trailer trucks = 12-kip steering, single axle
= 18-kip drive, tandem axle
= 50-kip trailer, triple axle
Reliability is 95% the overall standard deviation is .45, the concretes
modulus of elascticity is 4,500 ksi, the concretes modulus is 900 psi, the
load transfer coefficient is 3.2, and the drainage coefficient is 1.0.
Determine the required slab thickness.
Example 6
In 1986, a rigid pavement on a northbound section of
the interstate highway was designed with a 12 PCC
slab, an E
c
= 6 x 10
6
psi, a concrete modulus of
rupture = 800 psi a load transfer coefficient of 3.0, an
initial PSI of 4.5, and a TSI of 2.5. The S
o
= 0.45, k =
190 pci, and a reliability of 95% was used along with a
drainage coefficient of 1.0. The pavement was
designed for 20-year life, and traffic was assumed to
be composed entirely of tractor emi-trailer trucks with
one 16-kip single axle, one 20-kip single axle, and one
35-kip tandem axle (the effect of all other vehicles was
ignored). The interstate has four northbound lanes
and was conservatively designed. How many tractor
semi-trailer trucks, per day, were assumed to be
traveling in the northbound direction?
Measuring Pavement Quality and
Performance
International Roughness Index
Friction Measurements
Rut Depth