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Soil Structure Interaction in Integral

Bridges

Vidish A. Iyer
Structural Engineer and CAE consultant at Midas IT
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About Midas IT
About Midas Civil
About Integral Bridges
Modeling Philosophy and Soil Structure Interaction
Software Demo analysis and design




CONTENTS
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CONTENTS
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MIDAS Programs were being developed since 1989 and have been used
commercially since 1996.

With our headquarters in South Korea , we currently have 7 branches around
the world viz : in China , Russia , India , USA , UK, Japan and recently
Singapore .

With over 40 distributors present in over 150 countries.
One of the Largest civil analysis software developers
Proven Reliability with over 5,000 project applications
Intensive quality control system
Analyses verified by various institutions
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ABOUT MIDAS IT

MIDAS Programs were being developed since 1989 and have been used
commercially since 1996.

With our headquarters in South Korea , we currently have corporate offices in
Beijing, Shanghai, Detroit, Dallas, Europe, India and Japan and are ever
expanding .


One of the Largest civil analysis software developers
Proven Reliability with over 5,000 project applications
Intensive quality control system
Analyses verified by various institutions
CONTENTS
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ABOUT MIDAS IT
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Midas NFX
midas Gen
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midas FEA
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Soilworks
midas FX+
FEPartner
(PMC in Japan)
Building Eng. Civil Eng. Geotechnical Eng. Mechanical Eng.
OUR PRODUCTS

Integrated Solution System for Bridge and Civil Engineering midas Civil
What is midas Civil?
General Purpose
Special Purpose
FEM FBM BEM
Structural Engineer
Geotechnical Engineer
Bridge Underground Structure Building
Plant Tunnel Dam
Why midas Civil
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WHAT IS MIDAS CIVIL ?
2-D 3-D

Integrated Solution System for Bridge and Civil Engineering midas Civil
What kind of bridge type can midas Civil handle?
Conventional Bridge
Staged Segmental Bridge
Cable-stayed Bridge & Suspension Bridge
Why midas Civil
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WHAT TYPES OF BRIDGES CAN IT HANDLE ?

Integrated Solution System for Bridge and Civil Engineering midas Civil
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About Integral Bridges
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Four main types :

Frame abutments (fully integral bridges)
Bank pad abutments
Flexible support abutments
Semi-integral end screen abutments

Forms of Integral Bridges
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Effectively a portal frame
Full moment continuity between the deck beams and the supporting
structure at the ends
Frame Abutments
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End Supports integral with deck but can rotate and/or slide on soil
Abutment forms an end screen wall that extends the full width of the
road formation
Soil pressure on end screen limit equilibrium methods
SSI if bank pad supported on fully embedded piles
Bank Pad Abutments
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Helpful in avoiding soil pile interaction
Form sleeves of precast concrete manhole rings around piles
For smaller piles - polythene or UPVC piping
Concerns include buckling length within sleeve
Flexible Support Abutments
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End screen wall that is integral with the deck beams,
but does not provide support to the beams
Semi-integral end screen abutments
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Semi-integral end screen abutments
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Advantages :

Lower construction and maintenance costs due to elimination of joints ( Yang et aI., 1985;
Greimann et aI.1987; Soltani and Kukreti, 1992 ; Hoppe and Gomez, 1996 ).

Improved seismic performance (Hoppe and Gomez, 1996).

Fewer piles are required for foundation support (Soltani and Kukreti, 1992; Hoppe and Gomez, 1996).
No battered piles are needed (Burke, 1996).

Construction is simple and rapid (Burke, 1996; GangaRao et aI., 1996; Wasserman and Walker, 1996).

Greater end span ratios are achievable (Burke, 1996; Wasserman and Walker, 1996).

Why Integral Bridges ?
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Disadvantages :

Using uncompacted backfill to reduce passive pressure on abutment creates settlement at backfill
(Arsoy et al 1999 ; Russel et al, 1994 ; Thompson, 1999 )

Drainage problems can occur close to abutments ( Russel et al, 1994 )

Cracks in wing walls due to rotation and contraction of superstructure ( Arsoy et al 1999 ; Russel et al,
1994 )

Skewed integral bridge may rotate with cyclical loading variations in earth pressure ( Arsoy et al 1999 )

Limit on length of integral bridges (Arsoy et al 1999; Burke 1993; Burke 1990 )

Integral Abutments suitable if lateral movement of each abutment < 51 mm (Burke, 1993)

Why Integral Bridges ?

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SOIL STRUCTURE INTERACTION
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Soil is inherently nonlinear

Initially SSI was thought beneficial for structures under
dynamic actions

Larger natural period may lead to long period ground
vibration (Mylonakis and Gazetas ; 2000 )

SSI is an important consideration for seismic analysis and
also for improving the overall certainty of structural
stability
SSI AND ITS IMPORTANCE

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MODELING PHILOSOPHY
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Abutment is modeled as plate/solid elements .
Pile modeled as a vertical beam element

Three main modeling techniques :

Equivalent Cantilever ( for piles )
Equivalent Spring ( for abutment and piles )
Meshed Finite Element model for SSI

MODELING
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Most common modeling method
Pile behavior simplified by using equivalent pile length based
on stiffness properties of soil and pile
EQUIVALENT CANTILEVER
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EQUIVALENT CANTILEVER LENGTH
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ADVANTAGES

It is an easy method
Gives tolerable results for simple soil conditions

DISADVANTAGES

Ignores the soil resistance over pile length
Ignores Pile Group interaction
Different cantilever lengths for displacement and moment
considerations

ADVANTAGES/ DISADVANTAGES OF EQUIVALENT CANTILEVER METHOD
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SOFTWARE APPROACH
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Soil Springs equivalent stiffness of soil backfill
Consideration of nonlinear soil behavior
Theories :
- Petterson et al ( 2002 )
- Lehane et al ( 1999 )
- Lade et al ( 1987 )

In this presentation - Lehane for Abutment backfill
- Matlock and Reese (1974) for Pile Springs


SOIL SPRINGS
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ABUTMENT SPRINGS
1

'
0 h S
P K
'
0 h
P
a
b
c


Spring Force
Relationship between lateral
displacement and lateral stress
Abutment soil spring behavior
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ABUTMENT SPRINGS
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PILE SPRINGS
Formulation by Reese and Matlock ( 1970 )
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ADVANTAGES

Considers the effect of soil stiffness on the pile length
Behavior of the whole pile can be seen

DISADVANTAGES

Ignores Pile Group interaction if single pile p-y curve is used
Accuracy is a function of distance between spring nodes.


ADVANTAGES/ DISADVANTAGES OF EQUIVALENT SPRING METHOD
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EQUIVALENT SPRING VS EQUIVALENT CANTILEVER
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Accurate representation of local and global responses.
Analysis options can range from linear elastic to fully nonlinear analysis-
depending on requirement

Material Models :

- Mohr Coulomb
- Drucker-Prager
- Von Mises
- Hyperbolic ( Duncan-Chang )
- Jardine
- D-min
- Towhata
- Bowles
- and many others
FINITE ELEMENT MODELING
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FOR ADVANCED GEOTECHNICAL APPLICATIONS
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Contact : vidish@midasit.com
yjkim@midasit.com

THANK YOU