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Wide-band Air Fuel Sensor

Wide-range, WRAF
Wide-band, WAFR
Linear Air Fuel, A/F
Lean Air/Fuel, LAF
Air Fuel Ratio Sensor,
Wide-Band Oxygen Sensor
allows engines to operate as;
Lean as 23:1 (40:1)
Rich as 10:1
While maintaining closed-loop
more accurately reflects the
oxygen content in the exhaust vs
a conventional oxygen sensor.

Comparison of signals
Regular O2 sensor only
measures in a narrow band
at 14.7:1
Worthless for low emission

Wideband has a much
wider band to measure
from 10:1 to 20:1
Necessary for the new direct
injection fuel systems
Necessary for clean air!

Oxygen causes the Nernst cell to generate a voltage just like an ordinary O2.
The oxygen PUMP Cell compares the change in voltage to the control voltage from the PCM,
balances to maintain an internal oxygen balance.
CURRENT FLOW is altered creating a positive or negative current signal that
indicates the exact air/fuel ratio of the engine.
The current flow isn't much, usually only about 0.020 amps or less.
PCM converts the current output into a voltage signal to be read on a scan tool.
flows here!
Comparison of signals
o2 outputs

The volume ratio at 1 bar air-pressure would be about 4500 liter air for 1 lb of fuel.
1 bar is 14.5 psi.
an oxygen pump pulls oxygen from the
exhaust into a diffusion gap to
maintain a constant Voltage.
Creating AMPERAGE!
.020 amps
Current Flows!
to maintain voltage!
created by
PCM for the
scan tool!
When the air-fuel ratio is lean, the sensor produces a positive current ranges
from zero to 2.0 milliamperes as the mixture gets leaner up to 22:1, or
leaner. (2.2 bar is 31.9:1)

Testing a wide-band oxygen sensor usually involves using a scan tool.

Neat Russian Graphics!
Lean Air-Fuel Ratio Sensors
May uses 4, 5, 6, or 7 wires.
Power wire
1 or 2 wires for the electric heater (power &
3 or 4 sensor wires
Number of Wires
LAF Conversions - OBDII Scanners
Most PCMs display the rich and lean status of the exhaust,
BE CAREFUL! many show the operation of the oxygen sensor in millivolts from
zero to 1000 just as if the sensor were a conventional zirconia oxygen sensor.
But it is not the actual sensor data.

Normalized OBDII
Voltage is the data
the PCM will show
the scan tool
- It is not an actual

Looks like regular O2
5 wires or 6
Dual Nernst Cell
1200F operation temp
Recommends scan
tool for diagnosis

Toyota A/FS -Linear A/F
4 Wire
1996 appearance
Looks like regular O2
4 wires
Single Nernst Cell
1200F operation temp
Recommends scan
tool for diagnosis
Linear A/F signals
Heater pulse width
Voltage reference signals 3.3v & 3.0v
Lambda value compared to rich lean
Substituted HO2S values - slow & minimal movement.
a. Disconnect the A/F sensor connector.
b. measure the resistance between terminals +B and HT.
Resistance: 0.8 - 1.4* ohms at 20C (68F).
2007 FJ 1.8 - 3.4 ohms
If the resistance is not as specified, replace the sensor.
Torque: 44 Nm (440, 31 ft.lbf)
c. Reconnect the A/F sensor connector.

Toyotas sensor output is not a changing
analog voltage, but rather a small
(< 0.020 amps) bi-directional current.
RICH exhaust produced a positive 4.89 milliamps a
LEAN exhaust produced a negative 1.53 milliamps.
The sensor has two signal lines. One line has 3.3 volts, and
the other has 3.0 volts on it (relative to engine ground).
These two voltages do not change.
Voltage (300 millivolts) across the sensors two signal lines
does not change.

Toyotas Intelligent Tester
Change injection volume
Lower 12.5 % or
increase by 25 %
test at less than 3,000 rpm
A/F CONTROL enables
checking and graphing of A/F
(Air Fuel Ratio) sensor and
Heated Oxygen (HO2)
sensorvoltage outputs
To conduct test, select following menu
AFS B1S1 and O2S B1S2,and press
Verify Proper Operation - Toyota A/FS
Bosch Air Fuel Sensor
Porsche says all 2010 models will be
equipped with the new sensor!
Diagnose with Factory scan tool.
Compare lambda values on scan tool and
emissions machine
Watch valuse
Create RICH
Create LEAN

Testing a Bosch compare Lambda
the Best way to diagnose this A/F ratio sensor
Scan tool & Gas Analyzer,

Lambda values should should match, if not
more diagnostics will be required.
Testing a Bosch
1. Check Heater Circuit for Current or Voltage
2. Disconnect harness, check resistance of the trimming resistor, located
on Input and Output pump current wires.
1) Bosch spec is 30 - 300 ohms.
3. Reconnect harness , use DVOM check reference ground,
1) Bosch spec is 2.4 - 2.7 volts (refer to actual specs)
Heater Circuit pattern
Testing a Bosch
4. Scope the pump cell & Nernst signal
use sensor reference ground that you just checked.
Set scope to AC-coupled mode to see negative swings
Nernst voltage signal remains at .45 volts at all times
Pump cell voltage should vary about .5 to .6 volts switching across 0
Drive fuel mix rich then lean expect change in voltage of greater
than 1.0 volts.
Pump cell pumps oxygen ions from one side of the sensor to the other. PCM
monitors the Nernst signal attempting to keep the voltage at .45 volts.
PCM will increase and decrease the current flow to the pump cell to maintain
that voltage level.
Current pump sensor
60 seconds of road test
after replacement
shows proper
Check Mode 6 Data
Verify Proper Operation - Bosch LSU 4
Nissan Maxima 2004
Infiniti 2008 EX35
Tech Tips
Honda 5-wire "Lean Air Fuel" (LAF) sensors, the 8-pin connector pin for the
sensor contains a special "calibration" resistor. The value of the resistor can be
determined by measuring between terminals 3 and 4 with an ohmmeter, and
will be 2.4K ohms, 10K ohms or 15k ohms depending on the application. If
the connector is damaged and must be replaced, the replacement must have the
same value as the original. The reference voltage from the PCM to the sensor
on these engines is 2.7 volts.
Saturn also uses a special trim resistor in the WRAF sensor connector (pins 1
& 6). The resistor is typically 30 to 300 ohms. The PCM supplied reference
voltage is 2.4 to 2.6 volts.
If a WRAF sensor has failed because of coolant contamination, do not replace
the sensor until the leak has been repaired. The new sensor will fail otherwise.
Some early vehicle systems caused a "simulated" voltage to be displayed on a
scan tool. The actual value was divided by 5 to comply with early OBD II
regulations. Those regulations have since been revised, but be aware if you get
a "funky" display on your scan tool

Tech tips continued
variable current signal that can travel in one of two directions (positive or negative). The signal
gradually increases in the positive direction when the air/fuel mixture becomes leaner. At the
"stoichiometric" point when the air/fuel mixture is perfectly balanced (14.7 to 1), the current
flow stops and there is no current flow in either direction. And when the air/fuel ratio becomes
progressively richer, the current reverses course and flows in the negative direction.
The PCM sends a control reference voltage (typically 3.3 volts on Toyota applications, 2.6
volts on Bosch and GM sensors) to the WRAF sensor through one pair of wires, and monitors
the sensor's output current through a second set of wires. The sensor's output signal is then
processed by the PCM, and can be read on a scan tool as the air/fuel ratio, a fuel trim value
and/or a voltage value depending on the application and the display capabilities of the scan
For applications that display a voltage value, anything less than the reference voltage indicate a
rich air/fuel ratio while voltages above the reference voltage indicates a lean air/fuel ratio. On
some of the early Toyota OBD II applications, the PCM converts the WRAF sensor voltage to
look like that of an ordinary oxygen sensor (this was done to comply with the display
requirements of early OBD II regulations).

Supersniffers: Why Air/Fuel Ration Sensors
Bob Pattengale, Dec. 2005
FJ Cruiser Service Manual, 2007, section ES-313
ATTS Training, Import Computers, 2008
Sam Bell, Ralph Birnbaum & G Jerry Truglia
Advanced Engine Performance Diagnostics,
Halderman, 4th ed. 2009. photos by al tech page
Toyota Wide Range Air:Fuel Sensor,
John Thornton, Underhood Service, January 2002