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Welcome to

Training Program on ASME Sec. VIII Div. 1




Presented by

P. S, Joshi
Conducted for ICB Technimont Mumbai.

Agenda - session 1
This session will provide:
An introduction to Codes and
Standards
Objectives of Codes/ Standards.
ASME Code System.
Introduction To ASME Sec. VIII-1
Approximate duration 1.5 hours
CODE
Credi bi l i t y
Col l ect i ve Knowl edge
and Experi ence
2 S
Saf et y
( Pl ant , Per s onnel ,
Peopl e)
St andardi zat i on

2 C

WHY ADOPT CODES ?
Common pressure vessel codes

ASME Sec VIII Div 1 and Div 2

BS 5500

IS 2825

Ad Merk Blatter (German)

AFNOR (French)

ASME Codes

Issue freq. : New edition every 3 years, on 1
st
July
latest edition was on 1st July 04.

Addenda : In-between revisions, issued yearly
also on 1st July.
2004 Edn. & '04 add. --- 1st July '04
2005 Addenda --- 1st July '05
2006 Addenda --- 1st July '06
Again new edition - 2007 (1st July)
Applicability : Edition & Addendas effective 6 months from date of issue
(i.e. 1
st
Jan of next year)
Issued by : American society of mechanical Engineers, New
York.

ASME SEC. VIII DIV. 1
Pr es s ur e ves s el s wi t hi n s cope:
Ves s el s havi ng i ns i de di amet er above 6 i n.

Ves s el s des i gned f or pr es s ur es above 15
ps i g and not exc eedi ng 3000 ps i .
Unf i r ed s t eam boi l er s , evapor at or s ,
Heat exc hanger s
ASME Sec. VI I I di v. 1- - Excl uded f rom scope
Pi pi ng syst em & component s beyond
bat t er y l i mi t s.
Vessel s cover ed by ot her sect i ons
Vessel s f or human occupancy
Pr essur e cont ai ner s whi ch ar e i nt egr al
par t of r ot at i ng machi ner y.
ASME Boi l er & Pressure Vessel
Codes
ASME Codes gi ve s t i pul at i ons and gui del i nes f or t he
des i gn, mat er i al s , manuf ac t ur e and t es t i ng of
pr es s ur e ves s el s . Thes e ar e i s s ued by t he Amer i c an
Soc i et y of Mec hani c al Engi neer s , New Yor k.

The c odes wer e f i r s t i s s ued i n 1915. Si nc e t hen,
many c hanges have been made and new s ec t i ons
added t o t he c ode as need ar os e. I t i s a LI VE c ode
and i s r evi s ed and updat ed per i odi cal l y. I t keeps
pac e wi t h t i me and i s r es pons i ve t o i t s us er s .

I n i t s pr esent f r om t he ASME Code Syst em i s a
f ol l ows

Sect i on I Power Boi l er s .

Sect i on I I Mat er i al s peci f i cat i ons .

Par t A Fer r ous mat er i al s ,
Par t B Non Fer r ous Mat er i al s
Par t C Wel di ng r ods , el ect r odes ,
f i l l er met al s .
Par t D Mat er i al pr oper t i es .
CODE SYSTEM
CODE SYSTEM
S ec t i on I I I Nuc l ea r Power Pl a nt Component s .
S ec t i on I V Hea t i ng Boi l er s .
S ec t i on V Non des t r uc t i v e E x a mi na t i ons .
S ec t i on VI Ca r e a nd oper a t i on of Hea t i ng Boi l er s .
S ec t i on VI I Rul es f or c a r e of Power Boi l er s .
S ec t i on VI I I Di v i s i on 1 - Pr es s ur e Ves s el s
Di v i s i on 2 Al t er na t i v e Rul es ( Pr . Ves s el )
Di v i s i on 3 Rul es f or c ons t r uc t i v e of Hi g h
Pr es s ur e Ves s el s .
S ec t i on I X Wel di ng a nd Br a z i ng Qua l i f i c a t i ons .

CODE SYSTEM, contd

Sect i on X Fi ber gl as s r ei nf or ced Pl as t i c Pr es s ur e
Ves s el s .

Sect i on XI Rul es f or i n s er vi ce i ns pect i on of Nucl ear
Power Pl ant Component s .

APPLICABILITY
The edi t i ons and addenda become
appl i cabl e af t er si x mont hs f r om dat e of
i ssue. Thus, 1
st
J an. 2000, t he
const r uct i on of Pr essur e Vessel s shal l be
as per 1998 edi t i on and 1999 addenda.
However , f or ol d cont r act s spi l l i ng over
beyond 1
st
J an 2000, t he ol d appl i cabl e
edi t i on and addenda ar e val i d.

CODE I NTERPRETATI ON
ASME i ssue wr i t t en r epl i es know as
"I nt er pr et at i ons" t o t he i nqui r i es concer ni ng
t echni cal aspect s of t he code . These ar e
i ssued t wi ce i n a year ( J ul y and December )
and ar e sent t o "Edi t i on - subscr i ber s" as up-
dat e ser vi ce.

CODE CASES
Boi l er and Pr essur e Vessel s commi t t ee meet s
r egul ar l y t o consi der

Pr oposed addi t i ons and r evi si ons t o t he code.
At t he same t i me i t may f or mul at e code cases
t o cl ar i f y ' I nt ent ' of exi st i ng r equi r ement s.
These ar e publ i shed as code Case books. I t i s
publ i shed al ong wi t h new edi t i ons and
suppl ement s ar e aut omat i cal l y sent t o
subscr i ber s of code case book t i l l new edi t i on
i spubl i shed.

ASME Sec. VIII Div. 1 has five different parts
Part 1 : UG General requirements (Design requirements)
Part 2 : Material Specific Requirements
UCS Carbon steel & low alloy steel
UHA High alloy steels
UNF Non ferrous metallurgy
Part 3 : Fabrication method specific requirements
UW Welded construction
UF Forging construction
Part 4 : Mandatory Appendices &

Part 5 : Non mandatory Appendices
Cylindrical Horizontal or Vertical

Spherical
Steps in design -1
Find service conditions & metallurgy.
Ensure ductility at service conditions
Calculate thickness required (TR).
Steps in design -2
Design thickness = TR + Corr Allow
Roundup to commercially available thickness
to get nominal thickness
Find MAWP from nominal thickness
Solve a problem

Calculate the minimum thickness of a cylindrical shell of inside diameter
4000mm, tan to tan length of 8300mm and a design pr. of 100 Kg/sq cmg.

Design temperature of the vessel is 343 C

Material of construction ASTM A 516 Gr 70

Allowable stress of vessel at 343 C = 16500 psi

Corrosion allowance = 3.0 mm

Efficiency of the weld joint 1.0
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UW 3 : WELD JOI NTS CATEGORI ES.
UW 3 : WELD J OI NTS CATEGORI ES.
Cat egor y A :

1 Longi t udi nal wel d j oi nt s i n mai n shel l or
nozzl es.
2 Any wel ded j oi nt s i n spher i cal shel l .
3. Any wel ded j oi nt s i n Di shed Head.
4. Ci r cumf er ent i al Seam , Hemi sph. head t o
shel l .



UW 3 : WELD JOI NTS CATEGORI ES.
Cat egor y B :

1 Ci r cumf er ent i al seam i n mai n shel l , or
nozzl e
2 Ci r cumf er ent i al seam connect i ng f or med
head ( ot her t han hemi - spher i cal head) t o
shel l .
UW 3 : WELD JOINTS CATEGORIES.
Cont d.
Cat eg or y C :

Wel d j oi nt s c onnec t i ng f l a ng es , t ube s heet s , f l a t
hea d t o ma i n s hel l or Noz z l es
( F l a ng e Wel ds )

Cat eg or y D:

Wel ds j oi ni ng c ommuni c a t i ng c ha mber or noz z l e
t o t he ma i n s hel l / hea ds .
( At t a c hment Wel ds ) .

Types of ends
FLAT HEADS :
For low pressures up to 5 kg/sqcm

FORMED HEADS :
Torispherical
Generally used up to 15 kg/sqcm
Ellipsoidal
Generally used between 15 to 25 kg/sqcm
Hemispherical
Generally used above 25 kg/sqcm.
CONICAL HEADS : for Special purposes.
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For spherical shells / head :
t = P x R / (2SE - 0.2P) .for Thickness
P = 2SEt / (R + 0.2t).for MAWP

FORMED HEADS
For Torisph. Heads : (L = Crown Rad., r = 0.06 x L)
t, = 0.885 x P x L / (SE - 0.1P) for Thickness
P = SEt / ( 0.885L + 0.1 t ) for MAWP
For Ellipsoidal Heads : ( 2 : 1 type)
t = P x D / (2SE - 0.2P) .for Thickness
P = 2SEt / (D + 0.2t) .for MAWP
UW-11 : RT and UT EXAMI NATI ONS
F ul l Radi og r aphy i s r equi r ed i n f ol l owi ng c as es :

Al l but t wel ds of v es s el s f or l et ha l s ubs t a nc es

I f t hi c k nes s ex c eeds g i v en i n t a bl e UCS - 57, UHA - 33,

But t wel ds of unf i r ed boi l er s , wi t h des i g n pr . > 50 ps i .

F or a l l ot her v es s el s , Al l c a t . A wel ds f ul l r a di og r a phy .
Ca t . B & C wel ds whi c h i nt er s ec t t he Ca t . A wel ds s ha l l be
s pot r a di og r a phed .

Ra di og r a phy i s not r equi r ed of c a t eg or y B a nd C but t
wel ds i n noz z l es l es s t ha n NPS 10 or 1 1/ 8 i n. t hi c k .

UW-11 : RT and UT
EXAMI NATI ONScontd.

1 Spot Radi ogr aphy : Spot RT of But t j oi nt s i f
des i gn ef f i ci ency i s s el ect ed f or s pot
r adi ogr aphy.

2 No Radi ogr aphy : No RT of wel d j oi nt s i f des i gn
ef f i c i enc y i s s el ec t ed f or no r adi ogr aphy or
ves s el i s des i gned f or ext er nal pr es s ur e

3 Ul t r as oni c exami nat i on : May be s ubs t i t ut ed
f or RT onl y f or t he f i nal c l os ur e s eam of a
pr es s ur e ves s el .

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v
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UW 12 : WELDED JOI NT TYPES
UW 12 : WELDED JOI NT EFFI CI ENCY
RT 1 : F ul l Ra di og r a phy ( E =1) :
F ul l l eng t h r a di og r a phy of a l l but t wel ds
RT 2 : F ul l Ra di og r a phy ( E =1) :
Ca t A: F ul l l eng t h r a di og r a phy
Ca t B: S pot RT per [ UW 11 ( a ) 5 ( b) ]

RT 3 : S pot r a di og r a phy ( E = 0. 85)
RT 4 : No r a di og r a phy ( E = 0. 7)


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Out of roundness of Shell

Difference between the maximum and minimum inside diameter measured at
any cross section of the vessel shall not exceed 1% of the nominal diameter at
that cross section under consideration.
The diameter can be measured from either inside or outside. If measured from
outside shall be corrected for the thickness at that cross section.
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NOZZLE REI NFORCEMENT
Requi r ed ar ea of Rei nf or c ement = d X t
r

d= Di a met er of f i ni s hed openi ng
t
r
= Requi r ed t hi c k nes s of s hel l or hea d.

Rei nf or c ement i s wai v ed of f f or s i ng l e openi ng s i f :

1. f i ni s hed openi ng s i z e i s 3 1/ 2" or l es s di a met er
i n s hel l or hea d of t hi c k nes s 3/ 8" or l es s ; or

2. f i ni s hed openi ng s i z e 2 3/ 8" or l es s di a met er
i n s hel l or hea d of t hi c k nes s ov er 3/ 8" ;
UCS-66 : I MPACT TESTI NG
1 MDMT - Thi ckness poi nt f al l s on or above t he
r el evant cur ve. I mpact t est i s not r equi r ed
( Cur ve UCS 66 )

2 I mpact t est i s must , i f MDMT < 120 deg F, and:
Thi ckness Of wel ded par t > 4
Thi ckness f or Non- wel ded par t > 6

3 Test nor mal l y r equi r ed f or MDMT < - 55 deg. F

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I MPACT TESTI NG EXEMPTI ON -- UG-20
(f) :
I mpact t est exempt f or i f ,
Mat er i al s ar e P No 1, Gr . No. 1 and 2
1. Mat er i al s of cur ve A : t hi cknes s < 0. 5 i nch
2. Mat er i al s cur ve B, C, D : t hi cknes s < 1. 0
i nch
3. Hydr os t at i c t es t per f or med as r equi r ed
4. Des i gn t emp = - 20 deg F t o 650deg. F
5. No cycl i c or t her mal s hock l oadi ng
I MPACT TESTI NGEXEMPTI ON. contd.
1 UCS- 68 ( c) : I f PWHT i s per f or med when not a
Code r equi r ement , r educ t i on of 30 deg. F ( 17
0
C)
i n i mpac t t es t i ng exempt i on t emp. ( f r om Fi g UCS -
66) may be gi ven f or P No. 1 mat er i al s

2 I f c oi nc i dent r at i o i s < 1, Reduc t i on t o
exempt i on t emper at ur e may be gi ven as per
UCS- 66. 1

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PWHT t e mpe r a t ur e i s hi g he r of t he t wo f or di s s i mi l a r
me t a l j oi nt s


UW-40 : POST-WELD HEAT TREATMENT
PWHT i s Code Re qui r e me nt i f t hi c k ne s s exc e e ds
t hos e g i ve n i n t a bl e s f or r e s pe c t i ve mat e r i a l s .
F ur na c e PWHT met hod i s pr ef e r r e d .
Mi n. Ove r l a p f or PWHT i n mul t i pl e he at s = 5 f t .
L oc a l PWHT : Mi n S oa k Ba nd = we l d wi dt h + L e s s e r of
2 or t . a nd i t s ha l l ex t e nd f ul l 3 6 0 de g f or c i r c . J oi nt
S t i l l a i r c ool i ng per mi t t ed bel ow 800 deg . F .

UCS- 56: POST- WELD HEAT TREATMENT
Max . L oa di ng t emp i n f ur na c e = 800 deg . F
Max . heat i ng r at e 400 deg F/ hr / i nc h of t hi c k nes s .
S oa k i ng per i od a s per UCS - 56 t a bl es .
Temp di f f er enc e bet ween hot t es t a nd c ol des t
pa r t s of ves s el s ha l l not exc eed 150 deg . F
Max . c ool i ng r at e = 500 deg . F / hr / i nc h of t hk .
Max . of f l oa di ng t emp = 800 deg . F
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Summary of NDT
NDE OF PRESSURE VESSELS
Sel ec t i on of a par t i c ul ar NDT t ec hni que :

Applicable NDT methods / Welding Discontinuities
Discontinuities

Applicable NDT Methods

RT

T

PT

MT

VT

ET
Porosity *
a
*
b

a
*
Slag Inclusion NA *
b
NA *
Incomplete fusion * NA *
b
NA *
Incomplete Penetration NA * NA *
Undercut * * * *
Overlap
NA
* * *
Cracks *
a

b

a

Laminations
NA

a,c

b,c

a,c


NA
Applicable NDT methods for Weld joint types
Joints
NDT Methods

RT

UT

PT

MT

VT

ET

Butt













Corner

*









*

T

*









*

Lap

*

*







*
Note to NDT Table

a. Surface

b. Surface and slightly subsurface

c. Weld preparation or edge of base metal

Applicable method

* Marginal applicability depending on other factors.
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UG-99 : HYDROSTATI C TEST
Mi n . I n s p e c t i o n p r e s s u r e = Te s t p r e s s u r e / 1 . 3
Hy d r o s t a t i c Te s t p r. = 1 . 3 X MAWP X s t r e s s r a t i o
S t r e s s r a t i o = S t r e s s a t t e s t t e mp . / S t r e s s a t d e s i g n t e mp .
Any n o n - h a z a r d o u s l i q u i d ma y b e u s e d f o r t h e t e s t .
Mi n . Te s t t e mp = MDMT + 3 0 d e g . F ( 1 7 C )
I n s p e c t i o n t e mp e r a t u r e < = 1 2 0 d e g . F.
T h e MAWP ma y b e s a me a s De s i g n p r.
Te s t g a u g e r a n g e = 1 . 5 t o 4 t i me s t e s t p r.
UG-100 : PNEUMATI C TESTS
Pneumat i c t es t i s us ed i ns t ea d of hy dr o when:
Ves s el s c a nnot be s af el y f i l l ed wi t h wat er
Ves s el s i n s er v i c e i n whi c h t r a c es of
t es t i ng l i qui d c a nnot be t ol er at ed
Tes t pr = 1. 1 X MAWP X s t r es s r at i o.
Tes t t emp s ha l l exc eed MDMT by 30 deg F.
Pr. Ga ug e r a ng e = 1. 5 t o 4 t i mes t es t pr es s ur e
Safety precauti ons for Pneumati c Test
Al l wel ds a r ound openi ng s a nd at t a c hment wel ds
wi t h t hr oat >= 6mm ( 0. 25 ) t o be MT or PT t es t ed
T he pr. s ha l l be f i r s t r a i s ed t o 50% of t he t es t pr.
T he pr es s ur e t hen s ha l l be r educ ed t o a va l ue of
t es t pr es s ur e / 1. 1 , t o per mi t i ns pec t i on.
Then t he pr es s ur e s ha l l be r a i s ed i n s t eps of
10% of t es t pr. To r ea c h f ul l t es t pr es s ur e
CODE STAMPI NG
Each pr essur e vessel shal l be mar ked wi t h t he f ol l owi ng :

1) The of f i c i al Code U Symbol or t he of f i c i al UM Symbol .
2) Name of t he Manuf ac t ur er of t he pr es s ur e ves s el
pr ec eded by t he wor ds " c er t i f i ed by" ;
3) Max. al l owabl e wor k i ng pr es s ur e - - - - ps i at - - - -
0
F.
4) Mi ni mum des i gn met al t emper at ur e - - - -
0
F - - - - ps i
5) Manuf ac t ur er ' s s er i al number ;
6) Year bui l t .

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Thank You for
your
Ti me and Attenti on