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The

Scientific
Method
Warm Up Unit 1 Day 4
•How is a guess different from an
educated guess and how is a theory
different from a hypothesis?
Warm Up Answer Day 4
A guess would be based on no information
whatsoever. An educated guess is a
hypothesis which is an explanation based
on prior scientific research or observations
that can be tested. A scientific theory is an
explanation based on observation,
experimentation, and reasoning.
Observe

Scientific
Method Observe
(What do you see?)
Question
(What do you wonder?)
Collect Data
(What do you know?)

Hypothesiz
e
(What do you think?)

Experiment Analyze Conclude


(Also found on (What does nature do?) (What does nature say?) (Does nature agree?)

page 1 of the
Skills &
Test
Methods packet) (Are you correct?)

Share
(What do others think?)

Scientific

Non-
Scientific Validate
(Do others agree?)
The “Spectrum of Certainty”
Scientific Revolution
New Insight or Discovery
Observation Experimentation Verification Reliability

Guess Hypothesis Conclusion Theory Law

Increasing Evidence / Time

We test (experiment) to uncover more evidence!


It is the job of science to disprove theories!
Scientific Means…
“FiLCHeRS”
Falsifiable
“Is there a test that could prove it wrong?”
Logical
“Is the evidence logical and follow from it’s
premises?”
Comprehensive
“Is all possible evidence is available to help
support the claim?”
“FiLCHeRS” cont.
Honesty
“All evidence must be evaluated without self-
deception.”
Replicable
“Can others reproduce the same results?”
Sufficiency
“Is it supported by observed and verified evidence?”
Science vs.
Pseudoscience
Horoscope Activity
1. Using the lab table numbers 1 through 12,
group yourselves according to your
horoscopes.
2. In your group, read through each of the 12
descriptions and identify which number
you believe corresponds to your zodiacal
sign.
Ophiuchus…the 13 sign. th

Ophiuchus, formerly referred to as


Serpentarius the former originating
in Greek and the latter in Latin, both
meaning "serpent-holder," is one of
the 88 constellations and was also
one of the 48 listed by Ptolemy. Of
the 13 zodiacal constellations
(constellations that contain the Sun
during the course of the year),
Ophiuchus is the only one not
counted as an astrological sign. The
Sun is in Ophiuchus from November
30th until December 17th.
Designing an Experiment
• Decide what it is you are investigating.
– What do I want to observe?
• Identify and choose variables.
– What factors might influence what I am observing?
– Which ones do I want to test?
• Determine how you will measure.
– How can I accurately measure what I am testing?
• Choose a control condition.
– What set of conditions will I compare everything else to?
• Decide which conditions to test.
– How will I change the variables that I want to test?
• Determine what will be an adequate amount of data.
– How much data will I need to form an accurate conclusion?
Getting Reliable Data
• Set a control condition.
• Test only one variable at a time.
• Perform multiple trials for each condition.
• Have multiple experimenters repeat your
experiment.
• Identify and address sources of error.
Mystery Device
• Observe
• Question
• Collect Data
• Hypothesize
• Experiment
• Analyze
• Conclude
Procedure:
1) Pull on one item and predict which other
item(s) are going to move.
2) Repeat until you have 8 tests and you think
you know how the tube looks inside.
Data:
Test Hypothesis Observation

Pull on magnet Only the stopper will


move
Mysterious Conclusions
Draw a picture of
what you think the
inside of the tube
looks like. Write a
paragraph
describing why you
think you have the
answer.
Closure – Day 4
What types of future issues
surrounding the world do you think
science will play a role in
answering?