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Chapter - Continuous Sensors

schematic
physical
resistive
wiper
film
V
1
V
2
V
w
V
1
V
w
V
2
V
2
V
1
V
out
V
out
V
2
V
1

( )
u
w
u
max
-----------
\ .
| |
V
1
+ =
u
max
u
w
Voltage and Relationship
light
emitters
light
detectors
Shaft rotates
Encoders
relative encoder
absolute encoder
(quadrature)
sensors read across
a single radial line
Absolute and Relative Encoders
Quad input A
Quad Input B
total displacement can be determined
Quad input A
Quad Input B
Note the change
as direction
is reversed
by adding/subtracting pulse counts
(direction determines add/subtract)
clockwise rotation
counterclockwise rotation
Quadrature
rotating
shaft
magnet
pickup
coil
Vout
Vout
t
1/f
Tachometers
Linear Position
Linear Potentiometers
LVDTs
AC input
signal out
A rod drives
the sliding core
A
x
A
V K
A
x =
where,
A
V output voltage =
K constant for device =
A
x core displacement =
Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT)
Moving
Stationary
Moire Fringes
on
off
on
off
Accelerometers
Mass
Force
Sensor
Base
Mounting
Stud
Housing
accelerometer
isolated
isolated
surface
hookup wire
wafer
stud
Sealant to prevent moisture
+
-
V
I
t
w
L
t
w
L
F
R
V
I
----

L
A
----

L
wt
------ = = =
R'

L'
w' t'
--------

L 1
c
+
( )
w 1
vc

( )
t 1
vc

( )
-----------------------------------------------
\ .
| |
= =
o
F
A
----
F
wt
------ E
c
= = =
A
R

R' R R
1
c
+
( )
1
vc

( )
1
vc

( )
---------------------------------------- 1 = =
c
F
Ewt
---------- =
Strain Gages
uniaxial
rosette
s
t
r
e
s
s
d
i
r
e
c
t
i
o
n
Configurations and Placement
F F
b
c
a
F
F
+
q
-
C
c
ab
c
--------- = i
c
g
d
dt
-----F =
Piezoelectric Crystals
pressure
a) Bourdon Tube
p
o
s
i
t
i
o
n

s
e
n
s
o
r
position sensor
pressure
b) Baffle
pressure
increase
pressure
increase
Pressure
differential
fluid flow
pressure
transducer
Flow
V
out
o
T T
r ef

( )
=
measuring
device
+
-
V
out
T

V
out
o
---------- T
ref
+ =
Thermocouples
20
40
60
80
0
0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500
E
J
K
T
C
R
S
Thermocouple Types
Analog voltage source
+
-
IN1
REF1
SHLD
Analog Input A Shield is a metal sheath that
surrounds the wires
Shielding
Single and Double Ended Inputs
Ain 0
Ain 1
Ain 2
Ain 3
Ain 4
Ain 5
Ain 6
Ain 7
COM
device
+
-
#1
device
+
-
#1
Ain 0
Ain 0
Ain 1
Ain 1
Ain 2
Ain 2
Ain 3
Ain 3
device
+
-
#1
device
+
-
#1
Single ended - with this arrangement the
signal quality can be poorer, but more
inputs are available.
Double ended - with this arrangement the
signal quality can be better, but fewer
inputs are available.