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Oil and Gas Well Completions


WPS - Kellyville Training Center
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Completion Definition
Definition:
The methodology and technology required to produce
recoverable reserves (reservoir to surface).

Process:
The design, selection and installation of tubulars, tools
and equipment, located in the wellbore, for the purpose of
conveying, pumping or controlling production (or
injection) fluids.

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Fundamental Requirements
A completion system must provide a means of oil or gas
production which is:
Safe
e.g., well security, environment
Efficient
e.g., production objectives
Economic
e.g., cost vs. revenue
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Completion History/Evolution
1300 Marco Polo wells dug at Caspian Sea
1814 First naturally flowing oil well 475 ft
1822 Rudimentary art of drilling established
1905 Casing cemented
1911 First gas lift device
1913 First dual completion
1926 First electric submersible pump
1933 First gun perforation job
1969 Commercial coiled tubing services introduced
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Completion System Design
Openhole or
Cased Hole
Eruptive or
Pumped
Single or
Multiple Zone
Gross production rate
Well depth and reservoir
pressure
Formation properties
Fluid properties
Well location
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Openhole Completions (Barefoot)
Conductor with openhole
No ground water protection
Casing string with openhole
Provides top-hole stability
Liner with openhole
Cross-flow protection
Reservoir
Cap Rock
Openhole
Completion
Gravel Pack
Completion
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Perforated Completions
Casing or liner
Without production tubing
Casing or liner with
production tubing
Production through tubing
or annulus
Casing or liner with tubing
and packer
Production through
tubing, enables flow
control
Reservoir
Cap Rock
Cemented
casing
Cemented
liner
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Modern Completion Configuration
Four zone selective production system
Dual production strings
Commingled or alternate production
controlled by sliding sleeves
System contains 28 major downhole
components
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Factors Affecting Well Performance

1 Reservoir boundary
Can be estimated
2 Reservoir properties
Can be measured
3 Completion
Can be controlled
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Vertical Wellbore Profile
Vertical wellbore
No great productivity
benefit
May catch unwanted
water or gas
Preferred for
fracturing
Cap rock
Basement
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Deviated Wellbore Profile
Cap rock
Basement
Deviated wellbore
Increased
productivity
especially in thin
reservoirs
Extends reach within
reservoir
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Horizontal Wellbore Profile
Horizontal wellbore
Significant
increase in
productivity
Reduced influence
of skin
Reduced influence
on coning
Cap rock
Water zone
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Oil and Gas Well Completions
Completion
Design and Engineering
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Multiphase Fluid Flow
Principal multiphase flow regimes recognised in oil and
gas wells:
Bubble flow
Slug flow
Transition or churn flow
Annular or mist flow
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Bubble Flow
Bubble flow characterized by:
Small evenly distributed gas
bubbles
Continuous liquid phase
Further categorized as:
Bubbly flow
Dispersed bubble flow
Small gas
bubbles evenly
distributed
throughout
liquid phase
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Slug Flow
Slug flow characterized by:
Series of gas pockets between
slugs of liquid
Continuous liquid phase
Taylor bubbles
Bubbles of
varying size
unevenly
distributed
throughout
liquid phase
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Annular/Mist
Annular/mist flow characterized
by:
Continuous gas phase
Entrained liquid in gas flow
(mist)
Annular liquid film
Continuous
gas
phase
Annular
fluid
film
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Transition/Churn Flow
Transition flow characterized by:
Chaotic flow pattern
Neither phase is continuous
Liquid appears to move both
up and down the conduit
Chaotic
flow pattern
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Evaluating Pressure Losses
Gas
Liquid
Separator
Node
Surface choke
Reservoir Node
(boundary)
Wellhead Node
Wellbore Node
Reservoir Node
(near wellbore)
SSSV
Downhole
restriction
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Tubing String Specification
Tubing strings specified by the following:
Size and dimensions
OD
Weight and wall thickness
Coupling OD
Material grade
Minimum yield strength
Construction
Seamless/electric welded pipe
Tool joint
Nonupset/Upset
Premium thread
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Tubing Connections - Collar
Non-upset
(8 round) Connection
External Upset
Connection
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Tubing Connections - Integral
EUE
Integral Connection
Hydril
Integral Connection
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String Design Factors
Criteria for string selection/design include:
Pressure and tension
< 80% of tubing yield strength
burst and collapse pressure limitations
Production rate
flowrate should be compatible with flow area
Wellbore environment
fluid properties, e.g., corrosion, wellbore deposits
Tubular connections and geometry
e.g., tool joints and annular clearance
Force and stress
throughout the life of the completion
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Tubing Forces
Forces and stresses on the completion can be effected by:
Temperature
temperature changes
Pressure
pressure changes
Weight of components
Fluid density and gradients
Friction
especially in deviated wellbores
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Tubing Movement- Packers
Limited motion
No motion Free motion
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Buoyancy
1
Open tubing
4
Plugged string
3
Tapered string
2
Tapered string
A
C
B
D
A
C
B
A
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Length and Force Changes
Length and forces changes should be assessed to
enable:
Selection of an appropriate packer
Assessment of potential tubing damage
Accurate space out and landing of the completion
Four principal causes of length and force changes:
Piston effect
Buckling effect
Ballooning effect
Temperature effect
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Buckling Effect
Radial clearance Bowed tubing Compression buckling
Neutral point
R
R =
Casing ID - Tubing OD
2
Casing
wall
contact
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Pressure Buckling
Tubing
deflection
acts to increase
tension
High pressure
Low pressure
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Ballooning Effect
High pressure
Low pressure
Acts to
shorten the
string
increasing
tension
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Reverse Ballooning
High pressure
Low pressure
Acts to
lengthen the
string
reducing
tension
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Temperature Effect

H E A T
Neutral (As installed)
Cooling increases
tension
Heating reduces
tension
ICE
HEAT
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Tubing Stress Calculations
Completion
fluid
1
Installation
3
Treatment
2
Production
Completion
fluid
Mid stroke
setting
Produced
fluid
Completion
fluid
Seal
assembly on
down-stroke
Treatment
fluid
Completion
fluid
Seal
assembly on
up-stroke
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Material Selection
Factors influencing material selection criteria typically
include:
Mechanical properties
e.g., material strength
Operating environment
e.g., sour or corrosive service
Ease of manufacture
Cost
Availability
e.g., in required dimensions
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Corrosion
Failure mechanisms associated with corrosion:
Stress corrosion cracking
Hydrogen embrittlement, stress cracking
Material weight loss
CO
2
corrosion, oxidization, treatment fluids
Pitting or localised loss
Requires three conditions
Corrosive media, e.g., oxygen
Electrolyte, e.g., moisture
Heat or pressure
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Elastomers and Plastics
General definition:
An elastomer can be stretched to at least twice its original
length and will quickly return to approximately its original
length on release. Plastics cannot withstand such strain
without permanent damage.

Primary applications:
Sealing components for:
pressure
fluids (liquids and gas)
heat
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Elastomer and Plastic Limitations
Elastomers and plastics should be selected on compatibility
with:
Corrosive fluids or environment
e.g., reservoir or completion fluids
Chemical compatibility
e.g., stimulation fluids
Operating temperature
including range and fluctuation
Operating pressure
including range and fluctuation
Dimension
e.g., ability to function with extrusion gap
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Perforating
The process of creating a clear channel of communication
between the reservoir and wellbore.

Technique selection depends on:
Completion type and dimensions
Reservoir conditions, e.g., stability/consolidation
Local experience and preference
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Perforation History
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Perforation Program Design
Principal design considerations include:
Location of the perforated interval
Shot density
Perforation phasing
Penetration
Perforating debris
Gun conveyance method
Gun recoverability
Bottom hole perforating pressure
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Perforating Gun Components
Principal perforation gun/system components:
Charge carrier
recoverable, disposable
Detonator
electrical or percussion (dependent on conveyance)
Detonating cord
provides link between charges
Shaped charge
generates high pressure jet
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Perforation Charge
Charge components
Damaged zone
Reservoir
formation
Cement
Stand-off
Charge liner
Explosive
charge
Primer and
detonator cord
Charge
case
Gun body
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Perforation Process
Perforation sequence
Crushed zone
Perforation debris
Clean, stable perforation tunnel
Extremely high-
pressure jet
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Perforating Gun Systems
Perforating gun or system options include:
Gun conveyance method
wireline, TCP or coiled tubing
Thru-tubing gun systems
small OD systems
Casing gun systems
large OD systems
Tubing conveyed gun systems
recovered or dropped
suitable for long intervals
no verification
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Perforation Phasing
Perforation phasing Penetration
Stand-off
Penetration
Stand-off
Effects of perforation phasing
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Perforation Phasing
Perforation phasing describes the angle between shots. Key
considerations include:
Five common configurations - 0
o
, 60
o
, 90
o
, 120
o
, 180
o

phased guns require decentralizing
Near wellbore flow characteristics effected by phasing
Oriented phasing may be desirable, e.g., hydraulic
fracturing treatments
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Penetration, Stand Off and Debris
Penetration - effective length of perforation channel
Should bypass damaged zone
Effected by stand-off
Stand Off - distance between gun and casing/liner
Charge efficiency diminishes with distance
Effects accentuated at high pressures
Perforation size effected by stand off
Perforation debris - left in place after perforating
Some debris inevitable - dependent on gun/charge type
Should be removed by back flush after/during perforating
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Bottomhole Perforation Pressure
Two basic bottom hole pressure conditions associated with
perforating:
Overbalanced - perforating with kill weight fluid column in
wellbore
Surge following perforation acts to compact debris
Requires less complex equipment and techniques
Underbalanced
Removes perforation debris at time of perforation
Reduces likelihood of near-wellbore damage
Requires special equipment and techniques
A third Pressure condition is being used in the last years:
Extreme Overbalanced Perforation ( EOB ); The wellbore
pressure in the wellbore is higher than the Frac Gradient.
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Oil and Gas Well Completions
Types of Completion
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Completion Design Factors
Principal completion design factor include:
Casing protection
e.g., protection against erosion, corrosion
Tubing string removal
e.g., for replacement or workover
Safety or contingency
e.g., requirements for safety valves and well kill
Production control
e.g., components providing flexibility and control of
production (nipples, profiles and sliding sleeves
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Basic Production Configurations
Majority of completions are based on the following
completion configurations
Reservoir interface
Openhole
Casing production
Liner production
Gravel pack wellbore
Production conduit
Suspended tubing
Basic packer
Packer and tailpipe
Packer with additional safety and production devices
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Key points
No downhole flow
control or isolation
Producing formation
is unsupported
Casing provides
isolation between
shallower formations
Open Hole Production
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Casing Production
Key points
No downhole flow control
or isolation
Casing provides isolation
between shallower
formations with potential
for remedial work to
isolate sections of
perforated interval
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Liner Production
Key points
Similar to casing
production but with
smaller (and shorter)
tubulars set through the
reservoir
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Gravel Pack Wellbore
Key points
Special application -
requirement determined
by formation type
May require special
operation (underreaming)
during well construction
phase
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Simple Tubing Completion
Key features
Circulation capability (well
kill or kick-off)
Improves hydraulic
performance
Limited protection for
casing
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Basic Packer Completion
Key features
Circulation capability
(determined by design
and setting of packer)
Casing string protected
from fluid and pressure
effects
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Packer with Tailpipe
Key features
Additional flexibility for
downhole production
(flow)control, e.g., plugs
Facility for downhole
instruments (gauges)
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Enhanced Packer Installation
Key features
Improved flexibility for
downhole production
control, e.g., plugs above
or below packer
Circulation capability
independent of packer
Safety facility (SSSV)
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Completion Examples
The following completion examples are extracted from
design files for:
Single zone completions
Multiple zone completions
Liner completions
Special completions
Sand control
Inhibitor injection
Waterflood
Thermal
Remedial (scab liner)
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Single Zone Retrievable Packer
Key Features
Tail-pipe facility for pressure and
temperature gauges
Fully retrievable completion
Packer can be set with well flanged
up
Thru-tubing perforation possible
where size permits
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Single Zone Seal-Bore Packer
Key Features
Seal-bore packer set on electric-
line or tubing
On-off connector and tubing anchor
allows tubing to be retrieved
Tailpipe plugged and left in
wellbore or retrieved with
production tubing
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Single Zone Packer and Tailpipe
Key Features
Tailpipe plugged and left in
wellbore when production tubing is
retrieved
Permits safe thru-tubing perforating
Block and kill system facilitates the
killing of high-pressure, high-
flowrate wells
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Single Zone Casing Seal Receptacle
Key Features
Expansion joint allows for tubing
movement
Tailpipe retrievable (separately)
Protective sleeve run in CSR during
primary and remedial cementing
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Multiple Zones 2 Zones 1 Packer
Key Features
Separate or commingled production
through single tubing string
Blast joint protection across upper
interval
On-off connector and tubing anchor
permits tubing retrieval with lower
interval isolated

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Multiple Zones 2 Zones 2 Packers
Key Features
Independent production through
dual tubing strings
Blast joint protection across upper
interval
Both packers retrievable
Tailpipe instrument facility on both
strings
Thru-tubing perforation of lower
zone possible

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Multiple Zones 3 Zones 3 Packers
Key Features
Several zones produced through
one tubing string
Flow controlled by wireline
retrievable choke/check valves
By-pass sliding sleeve prevents
communication during service work
Up to five zones have been
produced using this method
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Multiple Zones 4 Zones 4 Packers
Key Features
Four zone selective production
system
Dual production strings
Commingled or alternate production
controlled by sliding sleeves
System contains 28 major
downhole components
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Liner CSR
Key Features
Most simple liner hook-up
CSR replaces packer
Fluid circulation through sliding
sleeve above the liner hanger
Tailpipe retrieved with production
tubing
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CSR and Seal-Bore Packer
Key Features
Liner top/lap is permanently
isolated
Fluid circulation through sliding
sleeve above the packer
Tailpipe can be plugged to allow
retrieval of the production tubing
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Special Service Completions
Special completion examples include:
Sand control
Inhibitor injection
Waterflood
Tubing/casing repair
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Gravel Pack Completion
Key Features
Tools set and gravel placed using a
service tool and tubing workstring
Gravel squeezed into perforation
tunnels
Production tubing stung-in to
production seal-assembly
Specialised service typically involving
dedicated service equipment and
personnel
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Inhibitor Injection
Key Features
Side pocket mandrel injection
permits protection inside production
tubing above the packer
Injection nipple and small diameter
injection line is suitable for shallow
applications
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Inhibitor Complete Protection
Key Features
Parallel flow tube and seal-bore
packer enables inhibitor to be
pumped down short string
All flow-wetted completion
components are exposed to
inhibitor fluid
Inhibitor flow controlled at surface
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Waterflood
Key Features
Two injection zones treated with
both flow control regulators located
at surface
Totally separate injection systems
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Waterflood Thick Injection Zone
Key Features
Injection efficiency in thick zones is
improved by using multiple injection
points
Downhole flow regulation helps
prevent premature breakthrough
between intra-zonal sections
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Thermal Completion Steam Injection
Key Features
Packer incorporates an integral
expansion/slip joint assembly
SPM allows insulation material to
be circulated into annulus
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Remedial Completion Scab Liner
Key Features
Isolation of damaged casing/liner
or abandonment of a depleted
zone
Hydraulic set packers at top and
bottom of scab liner
On-off connector on lower seal-
bore packer allowed installation
with the lower perforations isolated
throughout the operation
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Monbore Completion
Key Features
Designed to meet criteria for:
appropriate production rates
flexibility/contingency
safety
monitoring (reservoir
management)
longevity
Safety valve
Packer/hanger
assembly
Liner
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Multi-Zone Completion
Zone 1
Zone 2
Tubing Retreivable Surface
Controled Subsurface Safety
Valve (TRSCSSV)
Annular Safety Valve (ASV)
System with Wet Disconnect
Gas Lift Mandrel
Production Packer w/
TEC bypass
10 3/4 Casing
5-1/2 Production Tubing
Isolation
Packer w/ TEC
feedthru
Flow Control Device w/
Integral Pressure/
Temperature sensor
Venturi Flowmeter 9-5/8 Liner
Example of a Multi Zone Completion
using a Standard Configuration for
each Zone
(thi s can be repeated for any number of zones)
Hydraulic Control Line for
the TRSCSSV
Hydraulic Control Line for
the ASV
Plug
Tubing Encased
Conductor (TEC)
Cross Coupling Clamp
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Artificial Lift Objectives
The primary purpose of installing an artificial lift system is to
maintain a reduced bottom hole pressure (drawdown) to
enable the desired reservoir fluids to be produced at an
acceptable rate.
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Reasons for Artificial Lift
Compensate for declining reservoir pressure
i.e., maintain an acceptable production rate
Offsetting the effect of increasing water production
Overcome high friction pressures associated with the
production of viscous or waxy crudes
Kick-off high gas-liquid ratio wells that die when shut in
Reduce the effect of flowline back pressure
Maintaining a production rate which reduces wax or scale
deposition
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Artificial Lift Selection
The selection of an appropriate (optimal) artificial lift system
is dependent on:
Inflow performance of the well/reservoir
Capacity and operation of the artificial lift system(s)
Capital cost
Operating cost
Servicing frequency (maintenance cost)
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Artificial Lift TPC
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Artificial Lift Methods
Commonly used artificial lift methods include:
Rod pump
Gas lift
Electric submersible pump
Piston pump
Jet pump
Plunger lift
Other specialist or adapted systems
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Rod Pump
Rod pumps account for
approximately 60% of onshore
artificial lift completions
Industry accepted
Economic in ideal field
Not gas dependent
Limited efficiency
Maintenance intensive
Vertical wellbores
Rods
Productio
n tubing
Rod pump
Tubing
anchor
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Rod Pump - Surface Equipment
Stuffing box and
polished rod
Horsehead
Prime mover
Gearbox and
counterbalance
Production valve
Walking beam
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Gas Lift
Gas lift accounts for
approximately 90% of
offshore artificial lift
completions
System may be designed
to suit most wells
Wireline serviceable
Few mechanical parts
Sand and fill tolerant
Production
tubing
Production
tubing
Gas lift valve
installed
inside pocket
mandrel
Retrievable
packer
No-go seating nipple
Wireline entry guide
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Electric Submersible Pump
Extremely high liquid
production capability
High installation and
operating cost
Suitable for low gas-to-oil
ratio applications only
Electrical components
easily damaged
Armored cable
Cable guard
Sliding sleeve
Dual string retrievable
packer (modified)
Sliding sleeve
No-go seating nipple
Pump assembly
(various)
Pump
Intake
Protector
Motor
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Hydraulic Systems
Hydraulic pumping systems - two main categories
Piston pump
close coupled engine/pump assembly with positive
displacement pump
performance determined by the pump/engine size
Hydraulic jet pump
imparts energy to the production fluid
relatively tolerant of lower quality power fluid or
produced fluids
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Hydraulic Pumping Systems
Piston pump
system
Jet pump
system
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Plunger Lift
Suited to high GLR wells (low liquid production)
Efficiency decreases with depth and PI
Efficiency increase in larger tubing sizes (where liquid
slippage is more prevalent)
Other Systems
Screw pump
operates on same principle as PDM
Turbine pump
similar to ESP installations
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Plunger Lift System
Plunger (with
liquid load
Tubing stop
Standing valve
Tubing stop
Injection
gas
Production
Plunger
catcher
Intermitter
or controller
Surface
Equipment
Downhole Equipment