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N.W.F.P.

University of Engineering and


Technology Peshawar
1
By: Prof Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan
chairciv@nwfpuet.edu.pk
Lecture 06: Tension Members
CE-409: Lecture 06 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan 2
Types of Steel Structures
Introductory concepts
Design Strength
Net Area at Connection
Shear Lag Phenomenon
ASD and LRFD Design of Tension
Members
Design Examples
Topics to be Addressed
CE-409: Lecture 06 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan 3

The form of a tension member is
governed to a large extent by
Type of structure of which it is a part
Method of joining it to connecting portions.
Types of steel structures
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Types of steel structures
CE-409: Lecture 06 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan 5
Types of steel structures
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Types of steel structures
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Types of steel structures
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Types of steel structures
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Types of steel structures
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Sections for Tension Members
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Sections for Tension Members
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Design Stresses
for
Base Material
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Introductory Concepts
Stress: The stress in an axially loaded tension
member is given by Equation
The stress in a tension member is uniform
throughout the cross-section except:
near the point of application of load, and
at the cross-section with holes for bolts or other
discontinuities, etc.
CE-409: Lecture 06 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan 14
Types of steel structures
b
b
a
a
8 x in. bar
Gusset plate
7/8 in. diameter hole
Section a-a
Section b-b
b
b
a
a
8 x in. bar
Gusset plate
7/8 in. diameter hole
b
b
a
a
8 x in. bar
Gusset plate
7/8 in. diameter hole
Section a-a
Section b-b
Section a-a
Section b-b
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Types of steel structures
Area of bar at section a a = 8 x = 4 in
2

Area of bar at section b b = (8 2 x 7/8 ) x = 3.12 in
2

The unreduced area of the member is called its gross area = A
g

The reduced area of the member is called its net area = A
n

b
b
a
a
8 x in. bar
Gusset plate
7/8 in. diameter hole
Section a-a
Section b-b
b
b
a
a
8 x in. bar
Gusset plate
7/8 in. diameter hole
b
b
a
a
8 x in. bar
Gusset plate
7/8 in. diameter hole
Section a-a
Section b-b
Section a-a
Section b-b
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Design strength
A tension member can fail by reaching one
of two limit states:

1. Excessive deformation
Yielding at the gross area

2. Fracture
Fracture at the net area
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Design strength
1. Excessive deformation can occur due to the
yielding of the gross section at section a-a
b
b
a
a
8 x in. bar
Gusset plate
7/8 in. diameter hole
Section a-a
Section b-b
b
b
a
a
8 x in. bar
Gusset plate
7/8 in. diameter hole
b
b
a
a
8 x in. bar
Gusset plate
7/8 in. diameter hole
Section a-a
Section b-b
Section a-a
Section b-b
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Design strength
2. Fracture of the net section can occur if the stress
at the net section (section b-b) reaches the
ultimate stress Fu
b
b
a
a
8 x in. bar
Gusset plate
7/8 in. diameter hole
Section a-a
Section b-b
b
b
a
a
8 x in. bar
Gusset plate
7/8 in. diameter hole
b
b
a
a
8 x in. bar
Gusset plate
7/8 in. diameter hole
Section a-a
Section b-b
Section a-a
Section b-b
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Design strength
Yielding of the gross section will occur when
the stress f reaches F
y

Nominal yield strength = P
n
= A
g
F
y

Fracture of the net section will occur after the stress
on the net section area reaches the ultimate stress F
u

Nominal fracture strength = P
n
= A
e
F
u

y
g
F
A
P
f
u
e
F
A
P
f
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Design strength
AISC/ASD
Ft = 0.6 Fy on Gross Area
Ft = 0.5 Fu on Effective Area

AISC/LRFD
Design strength for yielding on gross area

t
P
n
=
t
Fy Ag = 0.9 Fy Ag
Design strength for fracture of net section

t
P
n
=
t
Fu Ae = 0.75 Fu Ae
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Effective Net Area
The connection has a significant influence on the
performance of a tension member.
A connection almost always weakens the member
and a measure of its influence is called joint
efficiency.
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Effective Net Area
Joint efficiency is a function of:
(a) Material ductility
(b) Fastener spacing
(c) Stress concentration at holes
(d) Fabrication procedure
(e) Shear lag.
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Effective Net Area
Research indicates that shear lag can be accounted for by
using a reduced or effective net area A
e

2
x
1
x
CG
For bolted connection, the effective net area is A
e
= U A
n

For welded connection, the effective net area is A
e
= U A
g

L
x
U 1
For Bolted Connections
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Effective Net Area
For W, M, and S shapes with width-to-depth ratio of at least
2/3 and for Tee shapes cut from them, if the connection is
through the flanges with at least three fasteners per line in
the direction of applied load ,
U= 0.9

For all other shapes with at least three fasteners per line ,
U= 0.85

For all members with only two fasteners per line
U= 0.75

CE-409: Lecture 06 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan 25
Net Area Example
Example : A 5 x bar of A572 Gr. 50 steel is used as a tension
member. It is connected to a gusset plate with six 7/8 in. diameter
bolts as shown in below. Assume that the effective net area A
e
equals
the actual net area A
n
and compute the tensile design strength of the
member.
b
b
a
a
5 x in. bar
Gusset plate
7/8 in. diameter bolt
A572 Gr. 50
b
b
a
a
5 x in. bar
Gusset plate
7/8 in. diameter bolt
b
b
a
a
5 x in. bar
Gusset plate
7/8 in. diameter bolt
A572 Gr. 50
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Net Area Example
Gross section area (A
g
):


A
g
= 5 x = 2.5 in
2

Net section area (A
n
):
Bolt diameter = d
b
= 7/8 in.
Nominal hole diameter = d
h
= 7/8 + 1/16 in. = 15/16 in.
Hole diameter for calculating net area = 15/16 + 1/16 in. = 1 in.
Net section area = A
n
= (5 2 x (1)) x = 1.5 in
2


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Net Area Example
Gross yielding design strength:
f
t
P
n
= f
t
F
y
A
g

= 0.9 x 50 ksi x 2.5 in
2
= 112.5 kips
Fracture design strength:
f
t
P
n
= f
t
F
u
A
e

= 0.75 x 65 ksi x 1.5 in
2
= 73.125 kips
Assume A
e
= A
n
(only for this problem)

Therefore, design strength = 73.125 kips (net section fracture
controls).



CE-409: Lecture 06 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan 28
Shear Lag in Tension
Members
Shear lag in tension members arises when all the
elements of a cross section do not participate in the
load transfer at a connection.
There are two primary phenomena that arise in
these cases:
(i) Non-uniform straining of the web resulting in
biaxial stress states
(ii) Effective area reduction.
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Shear Lag in Tension
Members
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Shear Lag in Tension
Members
Effective area reduction
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Shear Lag in Tension
Members
Design Bottom Line
Shear lag can have a large influence on the
strength of tension members , in essence
reducing the effective area of the section. The
amount of the reduction is related to the length of
the connection and the arrangement of cross-
section elements that do not participate directly in
the connection load transfer.
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Block Shear in Tension
Members
Block shear is a combined tensile/shear tearing
out of an entire section of a connection.
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Block Shear in Tension
Members
A failure in which the member fails in tension
on one section and in shear on the
perpendicular section.

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Block Shear in Tension
Members
T
T
Shear failure
Tension failure
(a)
(b)
(c)
T
T
Shear failure
Tension failure
Shear failure
Tension failure
(a)
(b)
(c)
CE-409: Lecture 06 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan 35
Block Shear in Tension
Members
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Block Shear in Tension
Members
For such a failure to occur, there are
two possible mechanisms:
(1) Shear rupture + tensile yielding; and
(2) Shear yielding + tensile rupturing.

CE-409: Lecture 06 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan 37
Block Shear in Tension
Members
AISC/ASD
Ft = 0.6 Fy on Gross Area
Ft = 0.5 Fu on Effective Area
Connecting element allowable stresses
where failure may be by shear
Fv = 0.3 Fu
Allowable block shear
F = 0.3 Fu + 0.5 Fu
CE-409: Lecture 06 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan 38
Block Shear in Tension
Members

AISC/LRFD



t
R
n
= 0.75(0.6 Fy A
gv
+ Fu A
nt
)

t
R
n
= 0.75(0.6 Fu A
nv
+ Fy A
gt
)
CE-409: Lecture 06 Prof. Dr Akhtar Naeem Khan 39
Block Shear in Tension
Members
Design Bottom Line
As a likely limit state for connections,
block shear must be considered in
design. This can be accomplished by
considering the strength limit states of
the two failure mechanisms outlined
above.

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Design Example 1-ASD
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Design Example 1-ASD
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Design Example 1-ASD
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Design Example 1-ASD
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Design Example 1-ASD
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Design Example 1-ASD
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Design Example 1-ASD
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Design Example 1-ASD
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Design Example 1-LRFD
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Design Example 1-LRFD
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Design Example 1-LRFD
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Design Example 1-LRFD
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Design Example 1-LRFD
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Design Example 1-LRFD
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Design Example 1-LRFD
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Design Example 1-LRFD
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Design Example 2-ASD
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Design Example 2-ASD
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Design Example 2-ASD
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Design Example 2-ASD
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Design Example 2-ASD
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Design Example 2-ASD
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Design Example 2-ASD
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Design Example 2-ASD
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Design Example 2-ASD
Design Alternative 2
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Design Example 2-LRFD
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Design Example 2-LRFD
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Design Example 2-LRFD
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Design Example 2-LRFD
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Design Example 2-LRFD
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Design Example 2-LRFD
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Design Example 2-LRFD
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Design Example 2-LRFD