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Academy of Economic Studies of Moldova

Tourism and Hotel Services Faculty



Project in Tourist Resource Management
Course


Student Chicaro Carolina , T-133
Coordonator Roman Livandovschi

Chisinau-2014

Theme 1. The subject of study Tourism
Resources Management
1. Introduction to the tourism resources
management

Objectives:
O1- to define tourism and the meaning of tourist;
O2- to present several scientists opinions concerning tourism
definition;
O3- to find some demonstrative methods.

Key words: tourist, tourism, traveler.
O1- to define tourism and the meaning of tourist

Tourist- 1.a person who is traveling or visiting a place for
pleasure; 2. (BrE) a member of a sports team that is playing a
series of official games in a foreign country.
Tourism- the business activity connected with providing
accommodation, services and entertainment for people who
are visiting a place for pleasure.

O2- to present several scientists opinions concerning
tourism definition

The travel can be undertaken for many reasons, the most
common are pleasure, business, and study. The subject of
travel is very exciting and fascinating.
O3- to find some demonstrative methods

The tourism industry is one of the most important
source of income and foreign exchange, and it is
growling rapidly. Four different perspectives of tourism
can be identified:

The tourist seeks various psychic and physical experience
and satisfactions;
The businesses providing tourist goods and services;
The government of the host community or area. ;
The host community. Local people usually see tourism as a
cultural and employment factor.




Conclusion:
Tourism is a dynamic activity taking a lot of
space, it involves different transportation
links. The romance of travel may not be what
it was in the days of steam, safaris and
stewards but it is the most important industry
in the world.
2. The position in the system of economic and
geographical sciences

Objectives:
O1- to find the relation between tourism and economy;

O2- to stress the importance of tourism with geography;

O3- to characterize the tourism with other sciences.

Key words: economy, link, impact.

O1- to find the relation between tourism and economy

Importance of an economic nature. Considerable incomes
are obtained through the consumption of tourism product.
Tourism is becoming a top economic field. Tourism is the
fastest growing industry in the world, contributing 6% to the
world economy.

O2- to stress the importance of tourism with geography

Geotourism is tourism that sustains, or even enhances, the
geographical character of a place, such as its culture,
environment, heritage, and well-being of its residents. Relation
between geography and tourism are named Geotourism, it
also can influence on tourism, here are specified the
environment.

O3- to characterize the tourism with other sciences

Tourism activity is common with such sciences as:
geology, history, biology, psychology, medicine, chemistry
which also participate in the setting up of tourism potential of
a given region.

Hydrology gives tourism the information about the tide
periods, weather (situation in the seas, oceans, river
regimes and character, dangerous zones).

Meteorology- It present the situation concerning the
weather which is a direct influence on the tourism activity,
i.e. it is useful not only concerning the clothes of tourists,
but also the activity in tourism infrastructure.

Conclusion:
We have just know the retort: The strength
only appear , when they are more than one
person, in this case, to conclude, I could say
that tourism with the help of many sciences
and economic branches had become-one of
the important branch of economy. Only the
word tourism for all the people in the world
create the impression about entertaining and
relax and, of course, to find something new
that daily appears in our epoch.

3. Principles, methods and means of study

Objectives:

O1- to specify the main principles, methods and means of
study.

Key words: principles, methods and means.

O1- to specify the main principles, methods and means of
study.

Tourism activity uses a series of principles, specific:
The principles of specialty- according to which the research
of tourism phenomena make use as a key method of
observation and is means of study- the description.

Principles of causality (cause)- which aim is the study of
appearance (emergence) assertion and development of
tourism process.

Principles of integration- of characteristic phenomena in
logical structures, designed to show the objective aspects.



Conclusion:

To sum up, we have to understand these
three principles ,the methods and means of
study for a correct perceiving in detailed
study of each natural elements, and
generally, of tourist phenomenon.

4.The categories of tourism resources
management

Objectives:

O1- to develop the meaning of tourism;
O2- to specify the categories of tourists and its explanations;
O3- to enumerate categories of tourism.

Key words: tourist, visitor, traveler, excursionist.
O1- to develop the meaning of tourism;
The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people
who travel to and stay in places outside their usual
environment for not more than one consecutive year for
leisure, business and other purposes not related to the
exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place
visited.

O2- the categories of tourists and its explanations
The tourist is the driving force under the tourism
phenomenon, while tourism is the result of this activity.
International tourism
Internal tourism
Domestic tourism
National tourism
O3- to enumerate categories of tourism

The tourism phenomenon is defined by a series
of notions. The most used are:
tourist; tourism; tourism potential; tourist supply;
tourist demand.
Natural tourism resources: climate; relief.
Man-made resources:museums, monuments; churches.
Tourist: infrastructure; tourist potential; tourist flow; tourist
product;
Tourism market; tourism content; tourism balance; tourism
market.

Conclusion:

Tourism in our days he different
meanings and senses, as tourist that take
part in the own category and have special
understandings so Tourism is leaving its
mark, often too literally so.

5. The factors influencing the tourism
phenomenon

Objectives:

O1- to define the meaning of demographic factors;

O2- to analyze the economic and politic factors;

O3- to reveal more clearly the psychological and social
factors.

Key words: factors, economy, politic, psychology, social.

O1- to define the meaning of demographic factors
Demographic factors- persons needs of relaxation,
physical-psychical recovering and of knowing;

O2- to analyze the economic and politic factors
Economic factors- they are very important for tourism
phenomenon.
Politic factors- they often contribute to the development or
the restriction of the tourism activity

O3- to reveal more clearly the psychological and social
factors
Psychological factors- it involves the mental activity of
people concerning its interests for nature, health and
beauty.
Social factors- the brain of this is free time of population.

Conclusion:

I dare say that when a tourist choose a
place or country in order to visit it, he thinks
about the environment he will be around i.e.
about all factors I have mentioned, that have
a great influence on a country. And, after
analyzing them he tries to do a conclusion if
have or not have to go to the adequate place
or a country.
Theme 2. The history of tourism
development
1. The stage of tourism in ancient times
(antiquity)

Objectives:
O1- to show the development of tourism in Antiquity;
O2- to speak about Greeks and ancient Greece;
O3- to stress the important of Roman Empire.

Key words: pilgrimage, culture, country, Asia, Europe,
Greece.
O1- to show the development of tourism in Antiquity
The emergence of human civilization in East Asia, South
Asia, South-West Asia, in the Mediterranean represented a
favorable occasion for tourism movements.
Alexandria - Egypt
East Asia - China
South Asia - India
South-West Asia-Mesopotamia
O2- to speak about Greeks and ancient Greece
While previous civilisations had set the stage for development of
travel, the Romans brought it all together. In Greeks times water
was the most important means of moving commercial goods.
Athens-Greece
O3- to stress the important of Roman Empire
The Roman combination of empire, roads,wealth, leisure,
tourist attractions, and a desire for travel created a demand
for accommodation and other tourist services.
Rome- Italy


Conclusion:


Middle Age was an important stage in
tourism development and for whole world,
because: appear first university, the sporting
games, and a lot of link ways.

2. The stage of tourism in the middle ages
until the Renaissance

Objectives:

O1- to show the tourism development in Middle Ages

Key words: Middle Age, Commercial changes, pilgrims,
maritime links, ins network.
O1- to show the tourism development in Middle Ages
This stage is also called pseudo-tourism stage. In Middle
Ages was commercial changes appear first ways along the
Europe, In basin of Mediterranean Sea, East Asia and South-
East.


Conclusion:

In this period is more religious , but with
all this commercial exchange and marine
link are intensifying. Nevertheless , it is the
human fortune to overcome obstacles in the
name of region and trade.
3. The stage of tourism in the late middle
ages during the Renaissance and the great
geographic discoveries till the mid of 20th
century

Objectives:
O1- to analyze the impact of Great Geographical Discoveries
on tourism;
O2- to name some events happened in this period;
O3- to define the meaning of holiday in that period.

Key words: religion, industrial revolution.
O1- to analyze the impact of Great Geographical
Discoveries on tourism
The important factor in the history of travel was the
Renaissance- for ex: Germany, Switzerland, and the Low
Countries. The population explosion in the West, increased
number of tourists.
Germany

Switzerland
The Low Countries-Belgium
O2- to name some events happened in this period

Development occurred because of three factors:
The approval of the medical profession;
Court patronage;
Local entrepreneurship to take advantage of the first two.

O3- to define the meaning of holiday in that period

The term holiday comes from holy days- days for religious
observances. The vacation was negotiated between employer and
workers and was again due to the economic and social changes
brought about by the Industrial Revolution. It made sense to take
the holidays during the warmer summer months.
Conclusion:

To sum up, I could say that this stage
represent just a level of continuing of the
evolution in tourism domain. Here we can
remark a social stability, but also there are
some painful exceptions like World Wars,
which were reflecting with negative aspects
on tourism activity. But, although the stability
generated the progress in many social
spheres, the driving force was the human
need to accelerate the progress.

4. The period of contemporary
tourism. Mass tourism

Objectives:

O1- to show the causes of apparition of contemporary
tourism

Key words: mass tourism.

O1- to show the causes of apparition of contemporary
tourism

The stage of contemporary tourism represents the
perfection of the previous stages adjusted to the
contemporary life features. The tourism movement intensified
all over the world are:

the shorting of the working days and weeks;
the rise in the standard of living;
the development and diversification of tourism supply on
original scale;
the increase need for relaxation with regard to city life.
Conclusion:
Performant evolution of production
processes from contemporary society , that is
associated to the growth of machines
pressure on the spirits are the main causes,
that leave their doors opened for tourism
affirmation in future. The growth of leisure
time and level of culture represent for the
practicability of tourism, the sin qua non
conditions, both for development and for
affirmation.

Theme 3. Natural tourist resources

1. The forms of the relief as natural tourist
resources
Objectives:
O1- to understand what represent escarpments;
O2- to appoint the great varieties of the reliefs forms and to
describe them;
O3- to speak about what means a cave and its composition.

Key words: relief, escarpments (scarps), crest, peaks,
defiles, canyons, gorges, banks, caves(caverns).
O1- to understand what represent escarpments
One of natural tourist resources with a tourist attraction is the
relief. Relief is the most rich and diverse attractive resource of
the world. It is the core of any landscape.
Sierra Nevada Mountain in the western U.S.

Gods Window in South Africa
Niagara Falls is located where the Niagara River crosses
the escarpments
O2- to appoint the great varieties of the reliefs forms and
to describe them
The crests and the peaks represent lines and points of certain
sides of the mountains.The gorges, the defiles, and the canyons
constitute an imposing group of natural resources.
The Grand Canyon of Colorado in Arizona
Fish River Canyon In Namibia
O3- to speak about what means a cave and its
composition
The caves have an attractive potential thanks to their
important recreational resources: their shape,archeological
and paleontological remains, and fossil glaciers.
Temple of the Sun in Carlsbad Caverns
Frozen Waterfal
Marble Caves Chile

Conclusion:
In conclusion, I will admit the fact, that the
relief represents the base or fundamental of
each tourist attraction. We know that in
interconnection with it there are some
attractive elements of nature like
hydrography, climate, fauna and vegetation.
And, as a result - the relief has a great
importance for tourism activity.

2. Climate as natural tourist resources

Objectives:

O1- to understand the meaning of climate and climate
determinants;
O2-to define weather, monsoon, tornado, temperature;
O3- to describe clouds, precipitation and types of it,
pressure, wind.

Key words: climate, weather, temperature, humidity,
cloudiness, precipitations, wind, pressure.
O1- to understand the meaning of climate and climate
determinants

Climate- the long-term effect of the suns radiation on the
rotation earths varied surface to atmosphere. Climate
encourages or discourages the act of tourism, catalyzing or
inhibiting the tourist stay.

O2- to define weather, monsoon, tornado, temperature

Weather- the elements of weather include temperature,
humidity, cloudiness, precipitation, wind, and pressure.
Monsoon- wind that changes direction with the change of
seasons; the monsoon prevails mainly in the Indian Ocean.
A tornado is a violently spinning column of air in contact
with both a cumuliform cloud base and the surface.
Temperature is a measure of the degree of hotness of the
air. Scientists used Kelvin or absolute scale, Celsius.
O3- to describe clouds, precipitation and types of it,
pressure, wind

Most clouds and almost all precipitation are produced by the
cooling of air as it rises. The branch of meteorology that studies
clouds is nephrology.

Precipitations like rain, drizzle, snow are very complex
phenomena.

Pressure is the force of the air on given surface divided by the
area of that surface. In most weather systems the air pressure is
equal to the weight of the air column divided by the area of the
column.

Wind is the horizontal movement of air. It is named for the
direction from which it comes.


Conclusion:

In conclusion I can say that climate and
its components: weather, temperature,
humidity, pressure, etc., has important role
in tourist change because this factors can
determine the main goal of people.

3. Hydrography as natural tourist resources

Objectives:

O1- to understand what mean hydrography, river system
and lake;
O2- to describe sea, ocean and waterfall;
O3- to develop more detail the geyser and glacier.

Key words: river systems, lakes, sea, ocean, waterfall,
geyser, mineral and thermal springs, glacier.
O1- to understand what mean hydrography, river system
and lake

The main forms of hydrographys presence in tourism are :
River system;
Lakes;
Sea and ocean water;
Waterfalls;
Geysers;
Mineral, thermal, and thermo-mineral springs;
Glaciers.
The Nile longest River in Egypt
The largest lakes are Lake Baikal, in Central Asia
Alaska - U.S.
O2- to describe sea, ocean and waterfall
Sea general designation for all the salt water in all the
specific oceans and seas that cover a large area of the surface of
the earth.
The Mediterranean Sea
The Caspian Sea
The Sea of Galilee
Ocean - continuous body of salt water that is contained in
enormous basins on the Earth's surface. The oceans and their
marginal seas cover nearly 71 percent of the Earth's surface, with
an average depth of 3,795 metres (12,450 feet).
Boundary between the Arctic and Pacific Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean
The Indian Ocean
Waterfall - area where flowing river water drops abruptly
and nearly vertically. Waterfalls represent major interruptions
in river flow.
The waterfall in the Angel Fall in Venezuela
The largest waterfall is Khone Falls on the
Mekong River in Laos
The Yosemite Falls in California-US
O3- to develop more detail the geyser and glacier
Geyser - any of a class of hot springs that discharges jets
of steam and water intermittently.
Old Faithful in Yellowstone Park, United States
Glacier - any large mass of perennial ice that originates on
land by the recrystallization of snow or other forms of solid
precipitation and that shows evidence of past or present flow.
Antarctica Glaciers
The Greenland glaciers

Conclusion:

Thus, this forms of hydrography, being
also natural resources, attract visitors
through their height, beauty, and
uniqueness, as the other resources do so.

4. Vegetation (flora) as natural tourist
resources

Objectives:
O1- to describe vegetation like a general term and the forest;

O2- to show the classification of forest;

O3- to name some the type of unusual trees like sequoia or
baobab.

Key words: Vegetation, functions, structure, forests.
O1- to describe vegetation like a general term and the
forest

Vegetation is closely linked to relief and climate.
Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it
refers to the ground cover life forms, structure, spatial
extent or any other specific botanical or geographic
characteristics.

Forest plant community, predominantly of trees or
other woody vegetation, occupying an extensive area of
land. Climate, soil, and the topography of the region
determine the characteristic trees of a forest.
Native Grasslands in South Dakota Arizona
O2- to show the classification of forest
Classification:
Forest may be divided into the following eight general
types on the basis of leaf characteristics and climate:
Deciduous forests of the temperate regions are the typical
formation of the eastern United states.

Deciduous monsoon forest are characteristic of
Bengal and Myanmar
Savanna from Brazil
Northern coniferous forests
Tropical rain forest are characteristic of central
Africa and the Amazon watershed
Temperate evergreen forests from Everglades
din Florida
Temperate rain forests are common on
Mediterranean coasts
Tropical scrub forest occur in regions of slight
rainfall, bordering wetter forests
O3- to name some the type of unusual trees like sequoia
or baobab

There are many types of unusual trees around the world
that exhibit a variety of interesting characteristics.

Like the ginkgo, the dawn redwood is old enough to be
considered a living fossil.

Like other sequoias, the dawn redwood grows well from
seeds, and seedlings have been successfully grown in many
of the milder parts of the East Coast of the United States.

Baobab- common name for a tropical African tree (Mallow).

Conclusion:

Vegetation is a factor of great importance for
tourists while choosing a destination. In such
way, this natural resource through its variety
make from a place to seem more challenge
and attractive.

5. Fauna (wildlife) as natural tourist
resources

Objectives:

O1- to describe fauna as a general term;

O2- to speak about hunting and types of fauna.

Key words: Fauna, wildlife, flora, animals, significance,
television show
O1- to describe fauna as a general term
Fauna - is all of the animal life of any particular region or
time. Zoologists and paleontologists use fauna to refer to a
typical collection of animals found in a specific time or place.

O2- to speak about hunting and types of fauna
Hunting- sport of pursuing and killing wild game animals in
order to provide food, or simply for the thrill of the chase.
Epifauna are animals that live upon the surface of
sediments or soils.
Macrofauna are benthic or soil organisms which are at
least one millimeter in length.
Meiofauna are small benthic invertebrates that live in both
marine and fresh water environments.
Mesofauna are macroscopic soil invertebrates such as
arthropods, earthworms, and nematodes.


Conclusion:
Fauna by media coverage and inclusion of
conservation education in early school
curriculum, wildlife tourism and ecotourism
has fast become a popular industry
generating substantial income for poor nations
with rich wildlife specially in Africa and India.
This ever growing and ever becoming more
popular form of tourism is providing the much
needed incentive for poor nations to conserve
their rich wildlife heritage and its habitat.
6. The tourist landscapes

Objectives:

O1- to reveal the understanding of tourist landscape;
O2- to speak about coastal landscapes and cultural
landscape;
O3- to name the type of landscape and to describe the first to
types

Key words: Tourist landscape; limestone, volcanic,
mountain and coastal landscapes; beach; cultural landscapes

O1- to reveal the understanding of tourist landscape

A tourist landscape can be described as constructed
through a variety of symbolic and material transformations of
an original physical and/or socioeconomic landscape in
order to serve the interests of tourists and the tourist
industry.


The word "landscape" itself combines 'land' with a verb of
Germanic origin, "scapjan/ schaffen" to mean, literally,
'shaped lands'. Lands were then regarded to have been
shaped by natural forces, and the unique details of such
landshaffen (shaped lands) became themselves the subject
of 'landscape' paintings.
O2- to name the type of landscape and to describe the
first to types
There are 4 types of tourist landscapes:
Karstic ( limestone) landscapes;
Volcanic landscape;
Mountainous landscape;
Coastal landscape

O3- to speak about coastal landscapes and cultural
landscape

A beach is a geological landform along the shoreline of a
body of water. It usually consists of loose particles which are
often composed of rock, such as sand, gravel, shingle,
pebbles, or cobble.

There are several beaches which are claimed to be the
"World's longest", including
Cox's Bazar Bangladesh


Fraser Island Beach
90 Mile Beach in Australia
90 Mile Beach in New Zealand

Conclusion:
So, through their variety, beauty and
uniqueness, landscapes are the attributes
that attract a great number of visitors.
Composed of vegetation, fauna, relief,
hydrography and a favorable climate, the
landscapes represent a piece from the
heaven grandeur.
Theme 4: Man-Made Tourist
Resources
1.The tourist attributes of the man-made
tourist resources
Objectives:
O1- to describe and analyze the tourist attributes of the man-
made resources;

O2- to give some examples more detailed of the man-made
tourist resources.

Key words: Attributes, antiquity, uniqueness, novelty,
dimension, past and present function, Louvre, Metropolitan
Museum, Hermitage museum.
O1- to describe and analyze the tourist attributes of the man-
made resources
The attractive man-made resources represent some
entertaining elements which are created by the man.
Antiquity - Egyptian Pyramids

Uniqueness - Leaning Tower of Pisa

Novelty - La Tour Eiffel

Dimension - Twin Towers of Malaysia

Present and past functions

O2- to give some examples of the man-made tourist
resources
The man- made resources can be:
Gods Window
Rome, Italy
The Trade Center build from Santa F;
Buckingham Palace


Conclusion:

To summarize, I dare say that all these
tourist attributes offer to visitors to learn about
all man-made resources secrets, i.e. to
discover the base or fundamental of them.

2.Historical edifices (erections)

Objectives:

O1- to distinguish which are the historical erections;

O2- to define the forts and the fortifications;

O3- to point out a conclusion and to speak about citadels.

Key words: Erection, castrum, castle, fortress, fort,
fortification, citadel, features.
O1- to distinguish which are the historical erections

Historical erections are the constructions made a long
period ago having different function and now they are like
indication, representing the moments and atmosphere of the
period they belong to.

The historical erections are the following:
castrums;
castles;
palaces;
fortifications;
forts;
fortress;
citadels.

O2- to define the forts and the fortifications
Many military installations are known as forts. The term is
derived from the Latin fortis ("strong") and facere ("to make").
Old City Walls, Avila, Spain
Old city of Jerusalem's Walls
O3- to point out a conclusion and to speak about citadels
A citadel is a fortress for protecting a town, sometimes
incorporating a castle. The term derives from the same Latin
root as the word "city", civis, meaning citizen.
The Citadel from Cairo

Conclusion:

Historical erections represent constructions
from remote past, the vestige left from
antiquity, showing us the period in which they
were built with the purpose to show us their
uniqness.

3.Religious edifices

Objectives:
O1- to define what does mean religious edifices;

O2- to speak about mosque and cathedral;

O3- to describe synagogue, monastery and stupa;

O4- to develop the meaning of mausoleum and pyramid

Key words: Religious edifices, house church, temple,
synagogues, cathedrals, mosques, sanctuaries, monasteries,
stupas, pyramids.
O1- to define what does mean religious edifices
Religious edifices are buildings that vary in size and
appearance but their real differences are often defined by
denominational preferences- religion.
Athenian Acropolis In Greece
House church (or "home church") is an informal term for an
independent assembly of Christians intentionally gathering in
a home or on other grounds not normally used for worship
services.
Saint Chapelle du Paris
A temple (from the Latin word templum) is a structure
reserved for religious or spiritual activities, such as prayer and
sacrifice, or analogous rites.
Mumbai India
O2- to speak about mosque and cathedral
Mosque- the primary purpose of the mosque is to serve as a
place where Muslims can come together for prayer. The
mosques are known around the world nowadays
Kaaba - the first mosque in the world
A cathedral (Lat. cathedra, "seat"), is a Christian church
that contains the seat of a bishop. It is a religious building for
worship, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal
hierarchy.The role of the cathedral is chiefly to serve God in
the community.
Sanctuary has multiple meanings. A sanctuary is the
consecrated area of a church or temple around its tabernacle
or altar.
Sanctuary Saint Thomas

O3- to describe synagogue, monastery and stupa
A synagogue is a Jewish house of prayer. Synagogues
usually have a large hall for prayer (the main sanctuary),
smaller rooms for study and sometimes a social hall and
offices.
The Sofia Synagogue in Sofia, Bulgaria

Monastery is a complex of buildings, that houses a room
reserved for prayer as well as the domestic quarters and
workplace(s) of monastics, whether monks or nuns, and
whether living in community or alone. Buddhist monasteries:
Nalanda, India Donglin Temple, China


A stupa is a mound-like structure containing Buddhist
relics--typically, the remains of a Buddha or saint. The stupa
is the latest Buddhist religious monument.

O4- to develop the meaning of mausoleum and pyramid
A mausoleum is an external free-standing building
constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or
burial chamber of a deceased person or persons.
Taj Mahal at Agra, India

Lenin's Mausoleum in Moscow, Russia

Grant's Tomb, New York City - a reduced-scale
version of Mausolos' original mausoleum

A pyramid is any three-dimensional polyhedron.
The Louvre Pyramid in Paris, France

The Luxor Hotel in Las Vegas, United States, is a
30-story pyramid with light beaming from the top

The three pyramids of Moody Gardens in
Galveston, Texas

Conclusion:

Religious edifices are a treasure of pride
for countries where they are situated. So,
their way of being represents uniqueness,
and what else can challenge visitors to travel
and see them with their own eyes.
4. Cultural and sports edifices

Objectives:

O1- to speak about cultural and sport edifices;
O2- to describe the cultural edifice: theatre and some sport
edifices;
O3- to determine the meaning of opera;
O4- to understand the permanent institution: museum

Key words: Cultural and sport edifices, agora, forum,
theatre, amphitheatre, stadiums, opera, museums.
O1- to speak about cultural and sport edifices
The Agora was an open "place of assembly" in ancient
Greek city-states. Early in Greek history, free-born male land-
owners who were citizens would gather in the agora for
military duty or to hear statements of the ruling king or councl.
O2- to describe the cultural edifice: theatre and some
sport edifices
Theatre was very popular amongst the Ancient Romans.
The name "Colosseum" came from a colossal statue (120
ft. high) of Nero.It was built by the members of the Flavian.
O3- to determine the meaning of opera
The word "Opera" means "work" suggesting that it
combines the arts of solo and choral singing, declamation,
acting and dancing in a staged spectacle.
Opera Italy

O4- to understand the permanent institution:
A museum is a "permanent institution in the service of
society and of its development, open to the public, which
researches, for the purposes of education, study, and
enjoyment", as defined by the International Council of
Museums.
The Museo Sacro, the first museum in the Vatican
Museums complex, was opened in Rome in 1756

The British Museum in London, was founded in
1753 and opened to the public in 1759


Conclusion:

So, cultural and sport edifices, represents
buildings from different periods, beginning with
ancient times, and that amaze everybody
through their architecture, antiquity,
uniqueness, and throughout other elements.
5.Economic edifices intended for tourist
activities

Objectives:
O1- to understand the meaning bridge and describe some
types of bridge;
O2- to give some examples of tunnels;
O3- to specify something about canal, types of artificial
waterways.

Key words: Bridges, types of bridges, tunnel, subway,
canal, dam.
O1- to understand the meaning of bridge and describe
some types of bridge
A bridge is a structue built to span a gorge, valley, road, railroad
track, river, body of water.
The Alcntara Bridge, built over the river Tagus,
in Spain
O2- to give some examples of tunnels
A Tunnel -may be for pedestrians or cyclists, for general
road traffic, for motor vehicles only, for rail traffic, or for a
canal.
The longest canal tunnel is the Standedge Tunnel
in the U.K.



The Seikan Tunnel in Japan is the longest rail
tunnel in the world at 53.9 km (33.4 miles), of
which 23.3 km (14.5 miles) is under the sea.

St. Clair Tunnel, opened in 1890, was the first full-
size subaqueous tunnel in North America.
O3- to specify something about canal, types of artificial
waterways
Canals are artificial channels for water. There are two types
of canals: irrigation canals, and waterways canals used for
passage of goods and people, often connected to existing
lakes, rivers, or oceans.


Conclusion:

Economic edifices are not only buildings as
a tourist attributes, but they also carry some
important and useful functions for the
development of a country.

6. Monuments, statues, commemorative
plaques

Objectives:

O1- to give definitions of monument and to develop it;
O2- to define statue and give examples of modern obelisk;
O3- to describe megalith and give examples of European
megalith.

Key words: Monument, statue, statuette, obelisk, megalithic
monument.
O1- to give definitions
of monument and to
develop it
Monument- place
that is designed and
built as a lasting
tribute to a person,
a group of people,
or an event.
Monuments are
often designed to
convey historical or
political information.
Monument Air Bucharest,
Romania
O2- to define statue and give examples of modern obelisk
A statue is a sculpture in the round representing a person or
persons, or an event, normally full-length, as opposed to a
bust, and at least close to life-size, or larger.
Statue of Zeus at Olympia
An obelisk is a tall, narrow, four-sided, tapering monument
which ends in a pyramidal top. Ancient obelisks were made of
a single piece of stone (a monolith).
Victory Obelisk in Moscow, Russia

McKinley Monument, on Niagara Square, in
Buffalo, New York, USA, 1907 (96ft)

Obelisk of Buenos Aires, Argentina built in 1936

O3- to describe megalith and give examples of European
Megalith
A megalith is a large stone which has been used to
construct a structure or monument, either alone or together
with other stones.
Stonehenge, Wiltshire, United Kingdom

Conclusion:

All monuments, statues and other
commemorative plaques built for the honour
as a memory of famous or just simple person,
represent not only a symbol but at the same
time they are fastens attributes of great
interest manifested by people.
7. Purely tourist edifices

Objectives:

O1- to name some purely edifices and to speak about theme
park;
O2- to show the meaning of casino;
O3- to specify something about fountain and to describe some
famous traditional fountains.

Key words: Casinos, first known casinos, fountains,
amusement park, Disneys California adventure.
O1- to name some purely edifices and to speak about
theme park
Amusement park is the generic term for a collection of
rides and other entertainment attractions assembled for the
purpose of entertaining a large group of people.
Disneyland - SUA
O2- to show the meaning of casino
A casino is, in the modern sense of today's world, a facility
that houses and accommodates certain types of gambling
activities. Casinos are built near or combined with hotels,
restaurants, retail shopping.
The Newport Casino in Newport, Rhode Island
O3- to specify something about fountain and to describe
some famous traditional fountains
A traditional fountain is an arrangement where water issues
from a source , fills a basin of some kind, and is drained away.
Port Fountain, World's third tallest fountain
located in Karachi, Pakistan.

Swann Memorial Fountain in Philadelphia
The Gardens of Versailles fountains on the
grounds of the Palace of Versailles near Paris

Buckingham Fountain in Chicago


Conclusion:

These kind of edifices are very popular
thats why many tourists are becoming willing
then they visit them, and just like to spend a
great time there with a lot of fun.

Theme 5: Human tourist activities

1. Carnivals

SUBJECTS:
O1- Carnivals;
O2- Fairs, exhibitions, religious pilgrimages and shrines;
O3- Artistic festivals and sporting events;
O4- Tourist resources of an ethnographic nature;

Keywords: Carnival,celebration

O1- Carnivals
Carnaval is a festive season which occurs immediately
before Lent; the main events are usually during February. Carnival
typically involves a public celebration or parade combinin soe
elements of a circus, mask and public street party.
The Saturnalia Carnaval
The Swabian Alemannic Carnaval


Conclusion:
Carnivals represent a great attraction for
tourists.

2. Fairs, exhibitions, religious pilgrimages and
shrines

Objectives:

O1- to define and name some fairs
O2- to define exhibitions

Keywords: fairs,exhibitions,pilgrimages


O1- to define and name some fairs
A fair is a gathering of people to display or trade produce or
other goods, to parade or display animals and often to enjoy
associated carnival or funfair entertainment.
Munich, Oktoberfest, Germany

Plovdiv, Bulgaria

O2- to define exhibitions
An exhibition is an organized presentation and display of a
selection of items. In practice, exhibitions usually occur
within museums, galleries andexhibition halls. Exhibitions
include for example: and commercial exhibitions, or trade fairs.
St. Petersburg, Veliky Novgorod


Conclusion:

Nowadays the popularity of fairs and
exhibitions is rising which means they attract
more people.

3. Artistic festivals and sporting events


Objectives:

O1- to define and characterize festivals

O2- to define and name some multi-sporting events


Keywords: festival,event,culture,international



O1- to define and characterize festivals
A festival or gala is usually a fun event, usually and ordinarily
staged by a local community, which centers on and celebrates
some unique aspect of that community and the Festival.
The Halloween in U.S.A.
The Christmas in China
The Spain Festival
O2- to define and name some multi-sporting events
A multi-sport event is an organized sporting event, often
held over multiple days, featuring competition in many different
sports between organized teams of athletes from nation-states.
The first Olimpic Game
The center of Olympic Stadium in East London

Conclusion:
Festivals and sporting events are very
popular.Thousands of people get together at
such kind of events.

4. Tourist resources of an ethnographic nature


Objectives:

O1- to define and describe etnography

O2- to define and describe sociology


Keywords: Ethnography, science, sociology

O1- to define and describe etnography
Ethnography is a qualitative research design aimed at
exploring cultural phenomena. An ethnography is a means to
represent graphically and in writing, the culture of a people.
The Ethnography of Italy
O2- to define and describe sociology
Sociology is the scientific study of human society and its
origins, development, organizations, and institutions.The
traditional focuses of sociology include social stratification,
social class, culture, race and ethnicity, gender and sexuality,
religion, secularization, law.


Conclusion:

Etnography as a science is in a close
conection with tourism.

Theme 6. Natural Tourist Resources of
the Republic of Moldova
1. Relief as tourist resource

Obectives:

O1- to describe the relief of the Republic of Moldova

Key words: relief,plains,valleys

O1- to describe the relief of the Republic of Moldova
Moldova lies to the east of the great arc of the Carpathian
Mountains. It is underlain mostly by deep sedimentary rocks
covering the southwestern portion of the ancient structural
block known as the Russian, or East European, Plain. Harder
crystalline rocks outcrop only in the north. Its surface is a hilly
plain, with an average elevation of 482 feet (147 metres), cut
by a deep network of river valleys, ravines, and gullies.

The uplands of the centre of the republic, the Codri Hills, lie
at an average elevation of about 1,150 to 1,300 feet (350 to
400 metres)


Due to its geological formations, the Republic of Moldova
has varied forms of relief and scenery that represent great
attractions for tourism:
Scenic points in the karst and limy relief of the
Toltrele Prutului
Toltrele Nistrului
Raut Hills
The Tigheci Hills
The banks of the Prut River

Conclusion:

The relief of the Republic of Moldova has
an important influence on the development of
tourism.


2. Climate as tourist resource

Obectives:

O1-to describe the climate of the Republic of Moldova


Key words: climate,winds,temperature
O1-to describe the climate of the Republic of Moldova
The Climate of Republic of Moldova is continental moderate-
temperate with a thermal regime, favorable for practicing
different types of tourism. The four seasons of the year are
clearly defined. The summer is hot and long, with the long
periods of drought. Winter is mild but not always white.



The temperature of
the soil ranges between
+10 C and +12 C. The
precipitation ranges
between 370 and 560
mm/year and more than
10% falls as snow,
which can melt several
times during winter.


Conclusion:

Climate of the Republic of Moldova is
favourable for the development of tourism.


3. Hydrography as tourist resource

Objectives:

O1- to describe the hydrographical touristical potential of the
Republic of Moldova

Key words: hydrography, rivers, lakes

O1- to describe the hydrographical touristical potential of
the Republic of Moldova

The hydrographical touristical potential, representing a
well developed hydrographic network: over 3000 of rivers and
rivulets , the largest being Nistru river, with a total length on the
territory of the republic of Moldova of 660 km, Prut river 695
km, Raut river 286 km, Cogalnic river 243 km etc.There are
4 natural lakes: Manta, Dracele, Bic and Beleu.

The mineral waters are found on the whole territory of the
republic, with debits that vary in different localities. Mineral
water resources could contribute to the development of the
balneo-tourism.

Rivers- there are 3,621 rivers and water-springs in
Moldova. All of them form part of the Black Sea basin. The
largest rivers include:
The Dniester - 1,352 km long , 657 km in Moldova


The Pruth 976 km long, 695 km in Moldova
The Reut - 286 km long
Lakes - there are approximately 60 natural lakes in
Moldova. Most of them are the lakes located in the high-
water beds of the rivers Pruth
Beleu
The large water-storage reservoirs have been created for
hydro-power plants:
CostestiStinca (735.0 mln.m3)
Ground waters

Ground waters have a special role in the surface water
balance in Moldova. The distribution of the available ground
waters is not even across Moldova, because their major portion
is concentrated in the high-water beds of the Dniester and the
Pruth.

Mineral Waters

There are 27 types of mineral water being approved for use
and certified in the Republic of Moldova; these are drawn from
47 table, table/therapeutic or therapeutic water springs;
furthermore, there are water sources with balneological (spa)
characteristics.
Industrial Waters

The industrial ground water available in Moldova contains
less-common extractable chemical elements, with the waters
containing iodine, bromine, strontium, cesium, rubidium, boron
and helium being the most widespread.

Thermal Waters

Thermal water is common in the high-water bed of the Pruth
and in the southern regions of Moldova. The water temperature
is 20.0-80.00 C, and the water debit of the wells is 10-100 m3
per day.


Conclusion:

Hydrography of the Republic of
Moldova is favourable for the development of
tourism.

4. Tourist landscapes


Objectives:

O1- to describe the main tourist landscapes of the Republic of
Moldova

Key words: landscape, tourist, heritage, culture

O1- to describe the main tourist landscapes of the
Republic of Moldova
Here are a lot of touristic objectives in Moldova, which had
preserved the traditions and cultural values during many
centuries
Orheiul Vechi
Curchi
Cricova Cellars
Museums- the Republic of Moldova has many museums in
the care of the Ministry of Culture, local public authorities and
other organisations. The Republic of Moldovas museums
are mostly housed in buildings of architectural importance
and feature rich collections of art.
Museum of Arts
Military Museum

Conclusion:

The landscapes of Republic of Moldova
have a big touristic potential.

Theme 7. Man-made Tourist Resources of
the Republic of Moldova


1. Historic erections


Objectives:


O1- to describe fortresses of the Republic of Moldova


Key words: Fortress


O1- to describe fortresses of the Republic of Moldova
A network of fortresses was built in the medieval Moldova to
protect it from enemy attacks. Soroca fortress was part of a
huge Moldovan defensive system in the medieval times.
Tighina Fortress was first mentioned as an important customs
post in a commerce grant issued by Moldavian hospodar
Alexandru cel Bun to merchants from Lvov on October 8 1408.

Conclusion:

The fortresses of Republic of Moldova
represent a true treasure for tourists.Their
beauty and amazing history makes them to
attract many visitors.


2. Religious erections


Objectives:

O1- to describe the most famous monasteries of the Republic
of Moldova


Keywords: Monastery, church

O1- to describe the most famous monasteries of the
Republic of Moldova
Capriana monastery is one of the oldest monasteries in
Basarabia. It is situated only 35 km north - west of Chisinau,
at the Isnovat locality.

Tipova Monastery is one of the oldest monasteries in
the Republic of Moldova is situated near the locality with the
same name. The monastery is spaded in stone on the
bunch of Nistru River.
Monastery, Vaslui
Saharna Monastery
Curchi Monastery is one of the most important
architectural monuments of Bessarabia, and it is also
considered to be one of the most beautiful and famous
monasteries of the region.


Conclusion:

Moldova is an orthodox country and has
a lot of religious erections which represent a
big potential for tourism.

3. Cultural, sports and economic erections

Objectives:
O1- to name and describe the most famous theatres of the
Republic of Moldova
O2- to name and describe the most important museums of the
Republic of Moldova
O3- to name and describe the most important sports erections
of the Republic of Moldova

Key words: Theatre, museum, sports erection

O1- to name and describe the most famous theatres of the
Republic of Moldova
The National Opera and Ballet Theatre of Moldova
in Chiinu, Moldova was founded in the mid-1940s.
The largest theater in Moldova is the National theater
Mihai Eminescu. The theater was founded in 1920 and
used to be called the National Theater in Chisinau.

Theatre Eugne Ionesco is one of the most
important theatres in Chisinau; founded shortly after
Moldova has proclaimed its independence, on 11.09.1991.

Ginta Latina theatre was created on 1st august 1989 by
Sandri Ion Scurea. It is home to performances related to the
interests of young people and children.
O2- to name and describe the most important museums of
the Republic of Moldova
The National Museum of Ethnography and Natural
History is the oldest museum in Moldova. It is located in
Chisinau and was founded in October 1889.

The National Museum of Fine Arts is located in
Chisinau.It was founded in November 1939 by Alexandru
Plmdeal and Auguste Baillayre.