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TUTORIAL 7

CONNECTIONS
Part 1
Bolted

27 MARCH 2012
Problem 1:Calculate the design resistance of the slip connections as shown
on figure bellow. The cover plates arte made S430 Steel and connected with
either (a) non-preloaded bolts of diameter 20mmm and grade 4.6 or (b) pre-
stressed bolts also of diameter 20mm and grade 4.6. assume that in both
cases, the shear plane passes through the untreated portions of the bolts.
SOLUTION:
a). Non- Preloaded Bolts
STEP 1: Design Shear Resistance( F
v,Rd
, per shear plane):
f
ub
= 400N/mm
2
(Table 3.1 EC 3-1-8),
Mb
=1.25 and A=20
2
/4=314.16mm
2



All 4 bolts in double shear resistance:
F
sd
= 4 x ( 2 x 60.32) = 482.56 kN
kN
A f
F
M
ub
Rd v
32 . 60
1000 25 . 1
16 . 314 400 6 . 0 6 . 0
2
,
=


= =

STEP 2: Bearing Resistance( F


b,Rd
, )
Bearing failure tends to take place in cover plates since they are thinner
is the smallest of:
1: e
1
/3d
0
= 35/(3x22)=0.530 ; 2 : p
1
/3d
0
= [70 /(3x22)]- = 0.810
3: f
ub
/f
u
= 400/430 = 0.930
Thus = 0.530
Bearing Resistance( 1 bolt)



All of bolt group:
F
bd
= 4 x ( 2 x 54.7) = 437.6 kN
kN
dt f
F
M
u
Rd b
7 . 54
1000 25 . 1
6 20 430 530 . 0 5 . 2 5 . 2
2
,
=


= =

o
STEP 3: Tensile Resistance of cover plates( F
b,Rd
, )
Net Area of cover plate, A
net
, is:
A
net
= 6 x 140 - 2 x 6x 2 2 =576mm
2
Design resistance(1 plate):



Both Plates:
F
t,Rd
= 2 x 178.33= 356.66 kN

Hence design resistance of the connection is (the lowest) = 356 kN
kN
f A
N
M
u net
Rd u
33 . 178
1000 25 . 1
430 576 9 . 0 9 . 0
2
,
=


= =

b). Prestressed Bolts


STEP 1: Preloading force( F
p,Cd
):
F
p,Cd
= 0.7xf
ub
x A
s
=(0.7 x400 x 245)/1000 = 68.6 kN
STEP 2: Slip Resistance(F
s,Rd
)
Assuming the surfaces have been shot blasted, i.e.. Class A, = 0.5, for 2
surfaces n = 2, standard clearance k
s
= 1.0
Slip resistance, F
s,Rd
(each bolt):


For all bolts
F
s,Rd
= 4 x 54.88 = 219.52 kN
Hence design resistance of the connection with prestressed bolts is (the
lowest, compared to the Plates Tension Resistance) = 219.52 kN
kN F
k
F
Cd s
Ms
s
Rd v
88 . 54 6 . 68
25 . 1
5 . 0 2 0 . 1
, ,
=

= =

q
Problem 2: If a beam is to be connected to a column using 8no. Grade 4.6,
M16 bolts as shown[next slide], calculate the maximum shear resistance of
the connection.

SOLUTION:
STEP 1: Check Positioning of Holes for Bolts
Diameter of bolt, d = 16mm ; diameter if bolt hole, d
0
= 18mm;
End distances e
1
= 30mm; Edge distance, e
2
= 35mm;
Spacing between center of bolts in the direction of load transfer p
1
= 60 mm;
Spacing between rows of bolts, p
2
= 115mm;
Thickness End Plates, t
p
= 10 mm;
Condition to be met(Table 3.3 EC3-1-8):
OK mm d mm e = = > = 6 . 21 18 2 . 1 2 . 1 30
0 1
OK mm d mm e = = > = 27 18 5 . 1 5 . 1 35
0 2
OK mm d mm p = = > = 6 . 39 18 2 . 2 2 . 2 60
0 1
OK mm d mm p = = > = 2 . 43 18 4 . 2 4 . 2 115
0 2
STEP 2: Shear resistance of Bolt Group
Cross-sectional Area:
Shear of Bolt Group, V
v,Rd



STEP 3: Bearing resistance of Bolt Group
is the smallest of:
1: e
1
/3d
0
= 30/(3 x 18)=0.555; 2 : p
1
/3d
0
= [60 /(3x 18)]- = 0.861
3: f
ub
/f
u
= 400/430 = 0.930
Thus = 0.555
Bearing of Bolt Group is:

2
2
06 . 201
4
16
mm A =

=
t
kN V
A f
F V
Rd v
Mb
ub
Rd v Rd v
83 . 308
1000 25 . 1
06 . 201 400 6 . 0
8
6 . 0
8 8
,
, ,
=


= = =

kN x
dt f
x xF
Mb
p u
Rd b
94 . 610
1000 25 . 1
10 16 430 555 . 0 5 . 2
8
5 . 2
8 8
,
=


= =

o
STEP 4: Resistance of welded connection between Beam and End Plate:


STEP 5: Shear Resistance of End Plate
Bolts holes in the plate do not need to be taken into account provided that
where:
and
Substituting the above gives:

Hence Shear Resistance of End Plates(2 planes) is:
kN
f A
xV
M
y v
Rd pl
81 . 725
1000 05 . 1
) 3 / 275 ( 2400
2
) 3 / (
2 2
0
,
=

= =

u y v net v
f f A A / /
,
>
kN 62 . 448 1000 / ) 240 63 . 934 ( 2 a ) L F ( 2 V
Rd , w Rd , w
= = =
2
2400 240 10 mm x A
v
= =
64 . 0 430 / 275 / 7 . 0 2400 / 1680 = = > =
u y
f f
2
,
1680 10 8 4 2400 mm x x A
net v
= =
STEP 6: Local Shear Resistance of Beam Web:
Shear Ares of the Web is:
Shear Resistance of Web




The maximum Shear Resistance of the connection is controlled by the
resistance of the bolt group(the lowest of all) and is equal to 308.83kN.
kN
f A
V
M
y web v
Web Rd pl
24 . 330
1000 05 . 1
) 3 / 275 ( 2184
) 3 / (
0
,
, ,
=

= =

2
,
2184 1 . 9 240 mm x Lt A
w web v
= = =
Problem 3: Show that the double angle web cleat beam-to-column
connection details as shown [fig.],is suitable to resist the design shear force,
V
sd
= 225 kN. Assume the steel grade S430 and the bolts are of grade 5.8
and diameter 16mm.


SOLUTION:
STEP 1: Check Positioning of Holes for Bolts
d = 16mm ; d
0
= 18mm; e
1
= 30mm; e
2
= 45mm;
p
1
= 50 mm; t
p
= 10 mm;
Condition to be met(Table 3.3 EC3-1-8):






STEP 2: Shear resistance of Bolt Group
Assuming that the shear plane passes through a threaded portion of the bolt,
Tensile stress Cross-sectional Area of the bolt is A
s
= 157mm
2
f
ub
= 500 N/mm
2
(table 3.1 EC3-1-8 for grade 5.8)
OK mm d mm e = = > = 6 . 21 18 2 . 1 2 . 1 30
0 1
OK mm d mm e = = > = 27 18 5 . 1 5 . 1 45
0 2
OK mm d mm p = = > = 6 . 39 18 2 . 2 2 . 2 50
0 1
Shear of Bolt Group, V
v,Rd



STEP 3: Bearing resistance of Bolt Group
is the smallest of:
1: e
1
/3d
0
= 30/(3 x 18)=0.555; 2 : p
1
/3d
0
= [50 /(3x 18)]- = 0.676
3: f
ub
/f
u
= 500/430 = 1.163
Thus = 0.555
Bearing of Bolt Group is:

OK KN V KN V
A f
F V
sd Rd v
Mb
ub
Rd v Rd v
= > =


= = =
225 314
1000 25 . 1
157 500 5 . 0
10
5 . 0
10 10
,
, ,

OK KN V KN
x
dt f
x xF
sd
Mb
p u
Rd b
= > =


= =
225 68 . 763
1000 25 . 1
10 16 430 555 . 0 5 . 2
10
5 . 2
10 10
,

o
STEP 4: Shear Resistance of Legs Cleats
Bolts holes need not to be allowed provided that
where:
and
Substituting the above gives:

Hence Shear Resistance of both Legs Cleats is:
OK KN V KN
f A
xV
sd
M
y v
Rd pl
= > =

= =
225 3 . 786
1000 05 . 1
) 3 / 275 ( 2600
2
) 3 / (
2 2
0
,

u y v net v
f f A A / /
,
>
2
2600 260 10 mm x A
v
= =
64 . 0 430 / 275 / 654 . 0 2600 / 1700 = = > =
u y
f f
2
,
1700 18 5 10 2400 mm x x A
net v
= =
STEP 5: Shear Action on Bolts due to Shear Force and Resultant Bending Moment
Shear Force per bolt, F
v,Sd
, is
Maximum Shear Force on bolt assembly in horizontal direction, F
h,Sd
is:

Resultant Force:

Shear Resistance per bolt:
Total Shear Resistance(by bolts in double shear):

kN n V F
Sd Sd v
45 5 / 225 /
,
= = =
kN x x p M F
Sd Sd h
5 . 40 ) 50 5 /( 45 225 5 /
1 ,
= = =
kN F F F
Sd h Sd v Sd V
54 . 60 5 . 40 45
2 2
2
,
2
, ,
= + = + =
kN F
Rd v
4 . 31
,
=
OK kN F kN x F
Sd v Rd v
= > = = 5 . 60 8 . 62 4 . 31 2
, ,
STEP 6: Bearing Resistance of Legs Cleats connected to Web of Beam
is the smallest of:
1: e
1
/3d
0
= 30/(3 x 18)=0.555; 2 : p
1
/3d
0
= [50 /(3x 18)]- = 0.676
3: f
ub
/f
u
= 500/430 = 1.163
Thus = 0.555





STEP 7: Bearing Resistance Web of Beams
is the smallest of:
1: e
1
/3d
0
= 35/(3 x 18)=0.648; 2 : p
1
/3d
0
= [50 /(3x 18)]- = 0.676
3: f
ub
/f
u
= 500/430 = 1.163
Thus = 0.648


OK kN F kN
x
dt f
x xF
Sd v
Mb
p u
Rd b
= > =


= =
5 . 60 74 . 152
1000 25 . 1
10 16 430 555 . 0 5 . 2
2
5 . 2
2 2
,
,

o
OK kN F kN
dt f
F
Sd v
Mb
web u
Rd b
= > =


= =
5 . 60 52 . 61
1000 25 . 1
9 . 6 16 430 648 . 0 5 . 2 5 . 2
,
,

o
STEP 8: Block Shear Resistance (V
eff,Rd
)
Thickness of web of beam =6.9










and

mm x d mm a L 80 16 5 5 60
1 1
= = < = =
mm a and mm L
v
6 . 95 _ _ 200
3
= =
mm x f f kd a L
y u t
6 . 40 ) 275 / 4300 )( 18 5 . 0 35 ( ) / )( (
. 0 2 2
= = =
mm x
mm
f f nd a a L a a L L
y u v v v
3 . 415 ) 275 / 4300 )( 18 5 . 0 6 . 95 60 200 (
6 . 355 6 . 95 60 200
) / )( (
. 0 3 1 3 1 3
= + + <
= + + =
+ + s + + =
3
3 2 1 ,
6 . 300 6 . 40 60 200 L mm
L L L L L
v ef f v
< = + + =
s + + =
2
, ,
2074
6 . 300 9 . 6
mm
x tL A
eff v eff v
=
= =
OK KN V kN
f A
V
Sd
M
y ef f v
Rd ef f
= > =

= =
225 61 . 313
1000 05 . 1
) 3 / 275 ( 2074
) 3 / (
0
,
,

Problem 4: In-Plane Design Resistance of a bolt group.


Problem: Determine the design resistance of the bolt group in the web fin plate
joint shown[next slide]

SOLUTION:
For 20mm grade 8.8 bolts, A
s
= A
t
= 245mm
2
STEP 1:

v
= 0.6 (Table 3.4 EC3-1-8), ; f
ub
= 400N/mm
2
( Table 3.1 EC3-1-8),
Mb
=1.25




so that

kN
A f
F
Mb
s ub
Rd v
08 . 90
1000 25 . 1
245 800 6 . 0 6 . 0
,
=


= =

08 . 94 370 . 0 s
v
Q kN Q
v
23 . 254 s
Problem 5: Plate Bearing Resistance
Problem: Determine the bearing resistance of the bolt group in the web fin
plate joint.

SOLUTION:
For 20mm grade 8.8 bolts, A
s
= A
t
= 245mm
2
STEP 1:
F
p,C
= 0.7 x 800 x 245 = 137.2kN
Ks = 1.0 (Table 3.6, EC3-1-8); = 0.4
v
= 0.6 (Table 3.7 EC3-1-8) ;
M3,serv
=1.10




so that

89 . 49 370 . 0 s
sL
Q kN Q
sL
83 . 134 s
kN F
k
F
C p
Ms
s
Rd s
89 . 49 2 . 137
1 . 1
4 . 0 0 . 1 0 . 1
, ,
=

= =

q
Problem 6: Out-Plane Resistance of bole Group
Problem: The flexible end plate joint is to transmit factored design actions
equivalent to the downwards force of Q kN acting at the centroid of the bolt
group and an out-of-plane moment M
x
= -0.05Q kNm. Determine the
maximum bolt forces, and design resistance of the bolt group.

SOLUTION
STEP 1: Bolt Group Analysis :
The maximum bolt tension given by:


Average bolt shear is:

QkN N
x Qx
F
Ed t
107 . 0
49000
) 70 35 ( ) 10 05 . 0 (
6
.
=

=
= + =
2 2 2 2
49000 35 4 105 4 mm x x z
i
QkN N Qx F
Ed v
125 . 0 8 / ) 10 05 . 0 (
6
.
= =
STEP 2: Plastic Resistance of Plate :
If the web thickness is 8.8mm,





And so: hence

STEP 3: Bolt Resistance :
At plastic collapse of the plate, the prying force causes a plastic hinge at the bolt line,
so that the prying force = 0.712 x 10
6
/ 30N = 23.7kN.
Bolt Tension = 0.107 x 443.0 + 23.7 = 70.6kN
Using the solution of E.g.5, F
v,Rd
= 94.08kN.
8 . 6 8 1 3 __ 8 . 35 6 8 . 0 2 / 8 . 8 2 / 90 F EC mm x m = =
4 . 6 8 1 3 __ 4 . 125 35 30 625 . 0 8 . 35 2 T EC mm x x l
eff
= + + =
2 . 6 8 1 3 __ 712 . 0 0 . 1 / 355 8 4 . 125 25 . 0
2
, 1 ,
T EC kNmm Nmm x x x M
Rd pl
= =
2 . 6 8 1 3 __ 9 . 94 30 / 10 712 . 0 4
6
, 1 ,
T EC kN N x x F
Rd T
= =
Q x F
Rd T
712 . 0 2
, 1 ,
> kN Q 0 . 443 s
For 20mm Grade 8.8 bolts, A
t
= 245mm
2
and f
ub
= 800N/mm
2
,


Hence:


And so the bolt resistance does not govern.
Thus:
4 . 3 8 1 3 __ 1 . 141 25 . 1 / 245 800 9 . 0
,
T EC kN N x x F
Rd t
= =
0 . 1 946 . 0
1 . 141 4 . 1
6 . 70
1 . 94
0 . 443 125 . 0
< = +
x
x
kN Q 0 . 443 s
Problem 7: Plate Bearing Resistance
Problem: Determine the bearing resistance of the end plate.

SOLUTION:
is the smallest of:
1: e
1
/3d
0
= 35/(3 x 22)=0.530; 2: f
ub
/f
u
= 800/430 = 1.569
Thus = 0.530
k
1
= 2.8x30/22 = 3.82 > 2.5 so that k
1
= 2.5



Using the analysis solution,
so that

kN Q 3 . 98 125 . 0 s
kN
dt f
F
Mb
p u
Rd b
3 . 98
1000 1 . 1
8 20 510 530 . 0 5 . 2
5 . 2
,
=


= =

o
) ( 0 . 443 8 . 786
p b
Q kN kN Q > > s
Problem 8: Design of pin joint for roof truss[next slide]. The forces, size of
angles are and tees have been obtained from analysis at ultimate load
assuming pin joints and axial forces in the members. The centroidal axes of
the members intersect so there is no eccentricity to be taken into account.
The thickness of the gusset plate is at least 6mm, and at least equal to the
minimum thickness of the angle or tee(6.1mm). Use a 10mm thick grade
S275steel.
SOLUTION:
STEP 1: Tensile Resistance of the tee S275:

OK kN kN
x
x
Af
N
M
y
Rd pl
> = = = 215 5 . 709
1000 00 . 1
275 2580
0
,

OK kN kN
x
x x x f A
N
M
u net
Rd u
> =

= = 215 15 . 785
1000 25 . 1
430 ) 22 2 2580 ( 9 . 0 9 . 0
2
,

Member 31, structural tee cut from 165x152UB20, welded to gusset plate,
design force Ned = 125kN
STEP 2: Resistance of 4-M20 class 4.6 bolts in single shear



STEP 3: Resistance of 2-M20 class 4.6 bolts in bearing on the web tee section (t=
6.1mm)




Where:
For an end bolt
b
= e
1
/(3d
0
)= 60/(3x22)=0.909
For an edge bolt k
1
= 2.8e
2
/d
0
-1.7 = 2.8x55/22 -1.7 =5.3 > 2.5
The Strap increases out of the plane stiffness of the truss.
OK kN N kN F
kN x
A f
n F
Ed Rd v
M
ub
b Rd v
= > =
=


= =

125 16 . 188
16 . 188
1000 25 . 1
245 400 6 . 0
4
6 . 0
,
2
,

OK kN N kN F
kN
x x
x
dt f k
n F
Ed Rd b
M
ub b s
b Rd b
= > =
=


= |
.
|

\
|
=

125 44 . 177
44 . 177
1000 25 . 1
1 . 6 20 400 909 . 0 5 . 2
2
,
2
,