Sie sind auf Seite 1von 32

Spanning Tree

page 2
Student Objectives
Upon completion of this module, the successful student
will be able to:
Define the spanning tree protocol.
Explain how spanning tree works.
Identify the building blocks of STP.
Describe the relationship between ports, VLANs, and
the Spanning Tree Domain.
Configure STP on Extreme Networks switches.
Describe Extreme Networks STP enhancements.
Note: Depending on the needs of the students, the instructor may choose
to reduce or eliminate the protocol overview portion of this module.
page 3
Spanning Tree
802.1D - Bridging, Switching and
Spanning Tree specification
Developed by DEC
Adopted by the IEEE and is defined
in the IEEE 802.1D specification

Allows for
redundant
bridging
paths
Prevents
network
loops from
occurring
Detects and
reroutes any
broken
network
paths
page 4
Spanning Tree Algorithm
Ports in the forwarding state are allowed to forward
packets.
Ports in blocking state participate in spanning tree but
do not forward data packets.
Redundant paths are pruned from the tree
page 5
Reconfiguration after a Link
Failure
Occurs when there is a change in the active topology
Link failure
Bridge failure
Administrative configuration change
Link Lost
Link
Restored
page 6
Spanning Tree Port States
Ports participating in STP can be in any one of five states:
Blocking
Initial state or determined by STP
No forwarding, no MAC address learning
Listening
Temporary state preparing for forwarding
Learning
MAC addresses are learned and entered in FDB
Forwarding
Active port for frame transmission
page 7
How Spanning Tree BPDUs are
Used
A stable active topology is maintained by the root bridge
The root bridge transmits Configuration BPDUs out of all of its
active ports to determine the least cost path.
When a designated bridge detects a topology change, it sends
out a Topology Change BPDU through it's root port to the root
bridge.
Root
Bridge
Root Port
Root Port
Root Port
page 8
Spanning Tree Protocol Building
Block
Spanning Tree uses the following building blocks:
Bridge ID
Bridge Protocol Data Unit
Root Bridge
Root Port
Designated Bridge
Designated Port
page 9
Selecting the Root Bridge
The Root Bridge controls the STP topology
Root Bridge = Lowest Bridge ID
Bridge ID = Bridge Priority and MAC Address
Priority = 0 65,535, Default = 32,768 (80:00 Hex)
e.g. Bridge ID = 80:00:00:01:30:12:34:56
Every bridge transmits CBPDUs claiming to be the
root bridge.
Each bridge saves and transmits the CBPDU
information of the bridge with the lowest Bridge ID
If the Bridge IDs are equal, save the information with
the lower MAC address.



page 10
Selecting the Root Bridge
Continued
In this example, Switch 1 becomes the Root Bridge


100 1000
100
100 100
1000
79:00:00:01:30:00:00:01 80:00:00:01:30:00:00:02
80:00:00:01:30:00:00:03 80:00:00:01:30:00:00:04
Root
1 2
3 4
page 11
Selecting the Root Port
Each switch except the root bridge selects the Root
Port as follows:
Port that provides lowest total cost to root bridge
If cost is the same, whichever has lowest port number
Root ports are allowed to forward traffic
Only one root port per spanning tree per bridge
page 12
Selecting the Root Port
Continued
In 802.1D, port costs are:
10Mb = 100, 100Mb = 19, 1000Mb = 4, 10Gb = 2
In this example the following root ports are selected:
Switch 1 = Root Bridge Switch 2 Root Port = 1
Switch 3 Root Port = 1 Switch 4 Root Port = 3
19
1
1
3 1
2
2
3
3
3 1
2
2
4
19
19 19
4
79:00:00:01:30:00:00:01 80:00:00:01:30:00:00:02
80:00:00:01:30:00:00:03 80:00:00:01:30:00:00:04
1 2
3
4
R
R
R
Root
page 13
Selecting the Designated Bridge
One designated bridge per directly connected
segment (collision domain)
Provides the lowest path cost to root
If the cost is the same, the lowest bridge ID is selected
19
1
1
3 1
2
2
3
3
3 1
2
2
4
19
19 19
4
79:00:00:01:30:00:00:01 80:00:00:01:30:00:00:02
80:00:00:01:30:00:00:03 80:00:00:01:30:00:00:04
1 2
3
4
R
R
R
D
D
D D D
D
Root
page 14
Selecting the Designated Port
Ports on a designated bridge that attach to the
segments for which that bridge is the designated
bridge
Designated port is allowed to forward traffic
19
1
1
3 1
2
2
3
3
3 1
2
2
4
19
19 19
4
79:00:00:01:30:00:00:01 80:00:00:01:30:00:00:02
80:00:00:01:30:00:00:03 80:00:00:01:30:00:00:04
1 2
3 4
R
R
R
D
D
D D D
D
Root
page 15
Ports in Forwarding State and
Blocking State
All root and designated ports are allowed to forward
All other ports are blocked
19
1
1
3 1
2
2
3
3
3 1
2
2
4
19
19 19
4
79:00:00:01:30:00:00:01 80:00:00:01:30:00:00:02
80:00:00:01:30:00:00:03 80:00:00:01:30:00:00:04
1 2
3 4
R
R
R
D
D
D D D
D
Root
page 16
Active Topology
Now there is only a single active path
What if an active link fails?
1
1
3 1
2
2
3
3
3
1
2
2
79:00:00:01:30:00:00:01 80:00:00:01:30:00:00:02
80:00:00:01:30:00:00:03 80:00:00:01:30:00:00:04
1 2
3 4
page 17
Detecting Topology Changes
STP detects changes to the active topology in the
following ways:
Failure of communications with Root Bridge
The root bridge periodically sends out a configuration BPDU
(Type 0) every 2 seconds as a keep alive. If a non-root bridge
does not receive this BPDU within 20 seconds, it presumes to
have lost communications with the root bridge
Local topology change / receive topology change BPDU
A topology change triggers a topology change BPDU (Type 80)
which is sent out and repeated by all the root ports
If a change in active topology is detected, STP can
recalculate the necessary port states.
page 18
A Change in Active Topology
Switch 4 is not able to exchange frames with the other switches
Switch 2 sends out a topology change BPDU
When the Root bridge receives this BPDU, it changes a flag in
the configuration BPDU triggering re-calculation
1
1
3 1
2
2
3
3
3 1
2
2
79:00:00:01:30:00:00:01 80:00:00:01:30:00:00:02
80:00:00:01:30:00:00:03 80:00:00:01:30:00:00:04
1 2
3 4
Break
page 19
Re-Calculating Port States
All root and designated ports are allowed to forward
All other ports are blocked
19
1
1
3 1
2
2
3
3
3 1
2
2
19
19 19
4
79:00:00:01:30:00:00:01 80:00:00:01:30:00:00:02
80:00:00:01:30:00:00:03 80:00:00:01:30:00:00:04
1
2
3 4
R
R
D
D
D D
D
R
Root
page 20
New Active Topology
Switch 4 can now exchange frames with the other
switches
If the connection between switches 2 and 4 is
restored, another topology change BPDU is released
triggering another re-calculation which restores the
active topology to it original state.
1
1
3 1
2
2
3
3
3 1
2
2
79:00:00:01:30:00:00:01 80:00:00:01:30:00:00:02
80:00:00:01:30:00:00:03 80:00:00:01:30:00:00:04
1 2
3 4
Break
page 21
Planning a Spanning Tree
Topology
Diagram the network topology and identify loops.
Determine the root bridge, designated bridges, and
designated ports using default values.
Identify if there is a more desirable topology and what
needs to be done to implement it.
Test all link and bridge failures on paper to identify
resulting topology.
Identify if there are more desirable topologies and
what needs to be done to implement it.
Document everything.
page 22
Configuring a Single Spanning
Tree in dot1w Mode
Configure the default STP domain for 802.1w mode.
configure stpd s0 mode dot1w
Add VLANs to the spanning tree domain.
configure stpd <stpd_name> add vlan <vlan name> port
<portlist>
Optionally configure bridge priority to control election of the root
bridge.
configure stpd <stpd_name> priority <priority>
For RSTP and MSTP priorities are in increments of 4096
Optionally configure port cost to control election of designated
bridge and designated port.
configure stpd <stpd_name> ports cost <auto | cost>
<portlist>
page 23
Configuring STP Continued
Configure the port priority to select the designated
port in case of a tie.
configure stpd {<stpd_name>} ports priority
<priority> <portlist>
Enable the STP protocol for the STPD.
enable stpd {<stpd_name>}

Note: The default STP domain (STPD) is
named s0.


page 24
Configuring STP Parameters
Typically default values are sufficient
Parameter changes require advanced STP
knowledge.
Parameters include:
Hello time
Forward delay
Max Age
page 25
Verifying STP Configuration
If the local BridgeID and the Designated root ID match,
then this switch is a root bridge.
page 26
Verifying STP Ports
page 27
Notes on Spanning Tree
Configuration
The 802.1D ports must be untagged.
A VLAN and port can belong to only one 802.1D
STPD.
A VLAN can only be a member of one 802.1D
STPD.
A physical port can belong to only one 802.1D STPD.
If a port is a member of multiple VLANs, then those
VLANs must belong to the same 802.1D STPD
page 28
Notes on Spanning Tree
Operation
You should remove all VLANs associated with the
STP before deleting the STPD. Because, if you
delete an STPD, member VLANs are automatically
deleted.
STP, load-sharing, and redundant physical ports/links
work together.
Blocked ports only process BPDU packets.
page 29
Spanning Tree Enhancements
Extreme Networks switches support the following modes:
802.1D
Using IEEE standard 802.1D (1998)
802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree
Easy to enable.
Provides faster convergence.
Compatible with 802.1D
Extreme Multiple Instance Spanning Tree Protocol (EMISTP)
Default mode for user created STPD
Per VLAN Spanning Tree (PVST+)
For compatibility with third party switches that run this version of
STP
page 30
Spanning Tree Enhancements
Continued
Extreme Networks switches support:
Multiple Spanning Tree Protocol (MSTP)
Logically divides a Layer 2 network into regions
Each region can contain multiple instances of spanning trees
Uses rapid spanning tree as a converging algorithm and is
fully interoperable with earlier versions of STP.
IEEE standard 802.1Q-2004 (previously 802.1s)
page 31
Summary
You should now be able to:
Define the spanning tree protocol.
Explain how spanning tree works.
Identify the building blocks of STP.
Describe the relationship between ports, VLANs, and
the Spanning Tree Domain.
Configure STP on Extreme Networks switches.
Describe Extreme Networks STP enhancements.

page 32
Spanning Tree Configuration Lab