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1

ORIGIN OF COAL
Coal are heterogeneous
sedimentary rocks found in
deposits (coal seams). It is
formed due to cumulative
effect of the following.
1. Type of decaying plant
remains
2. Condition of deposition &
sedimentation process
undergone
3. Influence of temperature
gradient
2
Coal is;
Chemically organic & inorganic
Both carboniferous and mineral
mater consisting
A Fuel
A rock
A sediment
A conglomerate
A biological fossil
A complex colloidal system
A molecular sieve
A polymer
Finally an intriguing solid state
material for physical and
chemical characterization.
3
Two basic coal type is created
depending on the type of originating
plant and tissue and nature by which
they are deposited.

Humic or banded type:
Formed from cellulosic
material. Degraded in higher
oxygen potential and precursor
to coking coal
Sapropelic or non-banded
type: Formed from alge, spore
and are decomposed in little
oxygen potential. Precursor for
petroleum & natural gas
deposits.

4
Factor effecting
coalification
Mackwsky theorized that final
composition of the coal or
fossil fuel formed is
influenced by
1. Redox Potential (Eh)

2. Acidity (Ph)
5
Process of coalification
Decaying Vegetation
Bacterial & fungal activity
Peat

Air oxidation
Decarboxylation
Dehydration
Gelefication to humanite
Lignite ( 70 % carbon)
Decarboxylation
Hydrogen disproportioning
Bituminous Coal (84 90 % Carbon)
Condensation of smaller aromatic rings system
Semi-Anthracite ( > 90% carbon)
Anthracite
Condensation
Meta-Anthracite
Graphitization
6
Geochemically coallification pattern
groups coal in to three category.1.
Liptinite 2. Vitrinite 3. Inertinite

0.1
0.5
1.0
O/C Atomic ratio
H/C
Ratio
1.0
2.0
Inertinite
III
Highly oxidized chemically
& biologocally in saline water
I
Wax & Cuticle
Little oxidized
Cutine
Liptinite
Vitrinite
Huminite
Lignite
Wood
Cellulose
II
Moderately oxidized
Mass in normal Ph
7
CLASSIFICATION OF COAL BY RANK
Rank: It is measure of extent of
carbonification
Ist stage
2nd stage
Final stage

CO2 removal
Water removal
Organic gases & liquid
Condensation reaction & release of
Hydrogen & increase in the size of
Aromatic ring.
Increased
carbonification
8
Rank is measured by
Equilibrium moisture ( EM )
Volatile Matter (VM)
Fixed carbon content
Reflectance of Coal
Calorific Value of Coal
Calorific value is more sensitive
than VM for accurately
determining rank of low rank
coal.
9
Most national coal classification system use VM as a
measure to determine coal rank

The ASTM classification ( D-388) use calorific value for low
rank coal, FC & VM for high rank coal. A widely used
classification of coal in to different category is illustrated.

MMR
% Volatile
Matter
Type of Coal
0.6-0.7
0.7-0.75
39-40
38-40
High volatile
coal
0.75-0.85
37-39 Bituminous -B
0.85-0.95
0.95-1.05
37-39
33-38
High Volatile
Bituminous A
1.00-1.25
1.25-1.50
26-33
21-26
Medium
Volatile
Bituminous
1.5-1.7
1.7-1.9
1.8-2.0
18-20
13-18
12-16
Low Volatile
Bituminous
2.0-2.8 8-14 Semi-
Anthracite
>2.8 <8.0 Anthracite
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Characterization for coking
Chemical characterization
Physical Characterization
Optical characterization
Rheological Characterization
Characterization wrt.
Weathering
Characterization for battery life


11
OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION
Refractive index of organic
compound is used to characterize
aromaticity, carbon content &
structure
Refractive index, absorption index
& reflectance are interrelated
For coking coal refectance is
normally used to estimate coal rank
Reflectance is the amount of
light(%) reflected from a plane
polished surface of coal

Contd.

12
Molecular structure, chemical properties &
physical property of coal are shaped by the
reflectance of coal.
Reflectance also can be expressed as
follow to illustrate its close relation with
structure.
Reflectance=Sum of elements
contribution to reflectance + ( Sum of
contribution due to typical structural
effects caused -electrons)

Reflectance of coal= Total reflectance
from carbon structure + Total reflectance
from Hydrogen associated + Total
reflectance from Oxygen associated +
Aromaticity

Contd.
13
Sapiro & Kosky model illustrates that low
rank coal are chemically more complicated,
less organized in structure. They have more
hydroxyl, carboxyl & methoxy groups and
consequently have more hydrogen bonding
and oxygen bridges.
Higher rank coal have higher aromaticity
and more planner type of structure.

These chemical and structural differences
accounts for
Change in density
Change in porosity and moisture
holding capacity
Different plastic property of coal
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REFLECTANCE AS A
MEASURE OF RANK
Mean Maximum Reflectance of
coal (MMR)

Average or Random
reflectance ( Ro )
( ASTM D 2798)

Reflectance is measured under the
microscope by focusing on vitrinite and
rotating the plane polished sample
through a plane polarized light source
illuminating the vitrinite. The maximum
reflectance being most representative
mean of at least of 100 such observation
is reported as Mean Maximum
Reflectance (MMR) of coal.

15
MACROSCOPIC
CHARACTERIZATION OF
COAL UNDER MICRO SCOPE

HUMIC COAL IN TO FOUR
LITHOTYPE
Vitrain: Very bright 3 to 5 mm
wide
Clarain : Intermediate lusture <
3 mm
Durain : Hard dull band ,
greasy lusture
Fusain: Gray black-black silky
lustrous band
Lithotypes are product of depositional
environment and provides insight regarding
the early stage of coal formation
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Microscopic characterization
of coal
( What is maceral ?)
As per Stopes in 1935 Macerals
refers to microscopically distinct
organic constituent
In 1958 Spackman elaborate
Macerals are organic substance,
possessing distinctive physical and
chemical properties and occurring
naturally in the sedimentary ,
metomorphic and igneous material
of earth.
International coal petrographer
group has agreed to put suffix
inite to identified macerals.
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MAIN MACERALS IN COAL
1. LIPTINITE OR EXINITE: Rich in
hydrogen, higher volatile mass most fluid
mass of coal. Contribute maximum to by-
product.
2. VITRINITE: Rich in oxygen with
moderate amount of hydrogen and volatile
matter. Major coke bond forming maceral
3. INERTINITE: Rich in carbon and little
hydrogen and volatile matter. Acts as a filler
in coke making.
Reactive Macerals
Liptinite+Vitrinite+Reactive Semi-fusinite
Inert Macerals
Inert semifusinite+Mineral
Matter+Fusinite+Macritinite+Micritinite+Sclerotinite
Composition Balance Index (CBI)
Amount of inert present in coal
Optimum amount of inerts for maximum strength
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Optical properties of coal for
good coking
Optical parameter Desired range
% Rective 70 - 85
% Inerts 15-30
%Vitrinite 60-70
%V9-V14 80 Min
MMR 1.1 1.2
CBI 0.7 1.3
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Chemical property of coal for
metallurgical coke production
Proximate
analysis
% Ash
%VM
%Moisture
<6.0
22-28
2.0 Max
Ultimate
Analysis
% C
% H
% O
% N
% S
80-87
4-5
3-4
1-2
<0.8
Ash
Chemistry

Basicity
Index

Total Alkali
< 0.16


<0.25
20
Rheological Property of coal for
production of high strength
metallurgical coke
Parameter Desired range
FSI 7-9
LTGK G5 Min
% Total Dilation 150
Maximum Fluidity
(ddpm)
200-4000
Fluidity Range
(DegC)
60 Min
21
Coking Coal for weathering check
and safe battery operation
COAL FOR SAFE BATTERY OPERATION
MMR 1.1-1.2
% VM 24-27
% Inerts 15-35
% Reactive <80
% SHO
Contraction
7 to 10
COAL FOR MINIMUM OXIDATION
Coal Oxidation test
Medium VM < 94%
Transmittance
22
Coal used at VSP for coking
Imported Hard Coking Coals
Type MMR %VM % Ash Source
BMAT 1.151.17 25-27 8-9 Australia
BMAG 1.19-1.2 23-24 8-9 Australia
Anglo-I 1.19-1.24 21-23 8-9 Australia
Anglo-Mn 1.19-1.24 21-23 8-9 Australia
Imported soft coking coal
Type MMR % VM % Ash Source
Teralba-soft 0.8-0.9 30-35 8-9 Australia
Moura-Soft 0.8-0.9 30-35 8-9 Austarlia
Indigenous medium coking coal
Type MMR % VM % ASH Source
Kathara 0.9 25-27 19-22 Bihar
Kedla 0.9 25-27 19-22
Swang 0.9 25-27 19-22
Rajrappa 0.9 25-27 19-22 Bihar

The typical blend used at VSP coking plant
Is 10-15% MCC;10-15%ISC;70-80% Hard Coal
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Typical specification of imported
coking coal at VSP
Parameter Desired Specification Absolute limit
Size
Below 0.5 mm
0-50 mm
20 % Max
0-50 mm
25 % Max
Total Moisture 8.0 Max 11.0 Max
% VM (Air Dry) 25-27 24-28
% Ash (Air dry) 9.5 Max 11.5 Max
Inherent Moisture 1.5 Max 2.0 Max
Phosphorus
Sulphur
LTGK
CSN
Maximum Fluidity
Fluidity range(DegC)
Initial Softening Temp
MMR
% Vitrinite
% V9-V14

Ash fusion Free
flowing
0.1 Max
0.6 Max
G5 Min
6.5 Min
600 ddpm Min
60 Min
15 +/ 410
1.13-1.18
55 Min
75 Min
>1400 DegC
0.1 Max
0.8 Max
G5 Min
6.5 Min
600 ddpm Min
60 Min
15+/ 410
1.11-1.2
50 Min
70 Min
>1400