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DEVIANCE

VALUES
beliefs or ideals shared by the
members of a culture about
what is good or bad and
desirable or undesirable.


DEVIANCE
Any significant departure from what is
considered normal or normative.
behavior that departs from the norm;
i.e. departs from whatever standard is
typical within a given situation or in
Society as a whole.
DEVIANCE IS RELATIVE

Deviance may vary in
time and place



DEVIANCE IS RELATIVE
What is deviant for one
group may be acceptable
to another group

EXAMPLE
Deviant behavior may be
TOLERATED, APPROVED, OR
DISAPPROVED. Modern societies
encourage some amount of
deviation which moves in the
direction of the ideal pattern of
behavior.
TOLERATED
Basically, what is considered
deviant depends on how
others, who are socially
significant in power and
influence, define act
The degree of deviation
depends on its variations
from the norms and the
value placed on the norm
SCHOOL POLICIES
EXPLANATION FOR
DEVIANT BEHAVIOR
THEORIES OF DEVIANT BEHAVIOR
SOCIAL
PATHOLOGY
explains that deviant
behavior is caused by actual
physical and mental illness,
malfunctions or deformities.


SOCIAL PATHOLOGY
Social pathology includes: substance abuse,
violence, abuses of women and children, crime,
terrorism, corruption, criminality, discrimination,
isolation, stigmatization and human rights
violations.
Solutions: Education, re-education,
hospitalization, rehabilitation,
imprisonment, capital punishment.

Deviant behavior is a result of abberant genetic traits
Cesare Lombroso an Italian criminologist who
studied the skulls and bodies of many prisoners,
reported that there are animalistic physical
patterns found in criminals, savages and apes; that
people with enormous jaws, high cheekbones, and
prominent superciliary arches are born criminals.

BIOLOGICAL THEORY
BIOLOGICAL THEORY
Charles Goring a British physician, who found
no differences between criminals and ordinary
citizens.
Witkin (1976) found that prisoners with an XYY
chromosome pattern or with an extra Y
chromosome (a normal man has an XY
chromosome pattern) might predispose
themselves to deviance.


BIOLOGICAL THEORY
Danish study the researchers speculated
that men with an extra Y chromosome are
less intelligent and easier for the police to
catch.
Solutions: Education, re-education,
hospitalization, rehabilitation,
imprisonment, capital punishment, and
behavior modification.

Deviant behavior is brought about by inner
conflicts or by the inability to control ones
inner impulses or failure to structure ones
behavior in an orderly way
Solutions: Psychiatry, psychological
counseling, hospitalization, and
rehabilitation; shock therapy.


PSYCHOLOGICAL
EXPLANATION

SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION
THEORY
believes that deviant behavior as caused
by the breakdown of norms, laws, mores,
and other important values of society.
Solutions: Modification or rehabilitation in
the part of the system which suffers from
disorganization.

SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION
THEORY
there are ecological factors that lead to
high rates of crime in these
communities, and these factors linked
to constantly elevated levels of "high
school dropouts, unemployment,
deteriorating infrastructures, and
single-parent homes" (Gaines and
Miller).
SOCIAL DISORGANIZATION
THEORY
The theory is not intended to apply to all
types of crime, but instead to street crime
at the neighborhood level. The theory has
not been used to explain organized crime,
corporate crime, or deviant behavior that
takes place outside neighborhood settings.

LABELING THEORY

Societys labeling on behaviors as deviant
causes deviant behavior. Behaviors are
labeled or tagged as proper or improper,
moral or immoral, good or bad. Behaviors
which transgress the social norms and
values are labeled or socially defined
deviant; they are, in turn, sanctioned by
ostracism or punishment.

LABELING THEORY

concerned with how the self-identity and behavior of
individuals may be determined or influenced by the
terms used to describe or classify them. It is
associated with the concepts of self-fulfilling prophecy
and stereotyping. Labeling theory holds that deviance
is not inherent to an act, but instead focuses on the
tendency of majorities to negatively label minorities
or those seen as deviant from standard cultural norms
LABELING THEORY

Unwanted descriptors or categorizations -
including terms related to deviance,
disability or diagnosis of a mental disorder
- may be rejected on the basis that they
are merely "labels", often with attempts to
adopt a more constructive language in its
place.
ANOMIE THEORY OR
STRUCTURAL STRESS
THEORY
posits that deviance exists
when people are denied
access to accepted means to
reach approved goals.


ANOMIE THEORY OR STRUCTURAL
STRESS THEORY
Durkheim introduced the concept of anomie as a
condition within society in which individuals find that the
prevailing social norms are ill-defined, weak, or conflicting.
For example, many people expect to have a job, but the
economy may not provide enough jobs for everybody. Thus,
a jobless job seeker may resort to illegitimate or illegal
means to achieve his goals.
Solutions: Giving access to approved goals; equal opportunity
for all.

CONFLICT THEORY
states that deviant behavior is caused by
an unjust social structure where unequal
distribution of wealth and power exists.

CONFLICT THEORY
Solutions: The moderates propose more reforms
in the various social institutions; the radicals
advocate a sweeping transformation or a
revolutionary approach, an overhaul of the
existing unjust social structure in order to bring
about a more or less equal distribution of
wealth, power, and prestige in the new social
order.

CULTURAL TRANSMISSIONS OR
DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION THEORY
deviance is created through the socialization
or transmission of norms within a community
or group.
Solutions: Education, re-education, role models
of successful people hospitalization,
rehabilitation, imprisonment, fines, censures,
capital punishment.


CULTURAL TRANSMISSIONS OR
DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION THEORY
is a theory developed by Edwin Sutherland
proposing that through interaction with
others, individuals learn the values, attitudes,
techniques, and motives for criminal behavior.
This theory focuses on how individuals learn
to become criminals, but does not concern
itself with why they become criminals
MERTONS TYPES OF DEVIANT
BEHAVIOR
Conformists: Most people are conformists. They
accept the goals their society sets for them, as
well as the institution-alized means of achieving
them. Most people want to achieve that vague
status called a good life and accept that an
education and hard work are the best ways to
get there.

MERTONS TYPES OF DEVIANT
BEHAVIOR
Innovators: These people accept societys
goals but reject the usual ways of
achieving them. Members of organized
crime, who have money but achieve their
wealth via deviant means, could be
considered innovators.

MERTONS TYPES OF DEVIANT
BEHAVIOR
Ritualists: A ritualist rejects cultural goals but
still accepts the institutionalized means of
achieving them. If a person who has held the
same job for years has no desire for more
money, responsibility, power, or status, he or
she is a ritualist. This person engages in the
same rituals every day but has given up hope
that the efforts will yield the desired results.

MERTONS TYPES OF DEVIANT
BEHAVIOR
Retreatists: Retreatists reject cultural goals
as well as the institutionalized means of
achieving them. They are not interested in
making money or advancing in a
particular career, and they tend not to care
about hard work or about getting an
education.

MERTONS TYPES OF DEVIANT
BEHAVIOR
Rebels: Rebels not only reject culturally
approved goals and the means of achieving
them, but they replace them with their own
goals. Revolutionaries are rebels in that they
reject the status quo. If a revolutionary rejects
capitalism or democracy, for example, he or she
may attempt to replace it with his or her own
form of government.

IV.TYPES OF DEVIANT BEHAVIOR AND THE
MEANS OF INDIVIDUAL ADAPTATION
1. Innovators are those who accept culturally approved
goals but disregard the institutional means to achieve
them.
Examples: government officials and low-wage earners
who commit graft and corruption to achieve a higher
standard of living.
2. Ritualists are those who give up cultural goals but
follow the prescribed norms.
Examples: a religious fanatic; an employee who reports to
work but does nothing about it.

3. Retreatists are those who abandon both the
cultural goals and the prescribed means to achieve
them.
Examples: drug addicts, hippies, alcoholics.
4. Rebels are those reject both the societal goals and
prescribed means to achieved them but try set up
new norms or goals.
Examples: rebel soldiers; New Peoples Army.