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Poetrys Elements

Syntax
Syntax is a set of rules in a language which
shows and how different parts of sentence
are put together in such an order.

Diction = the choice of words in a particular
situation
Syntax = the chosen words are used to form
a sentence
Syntax
The general word order of an English
sentence is subject, verb, and object.

In poetry, however, the word order may be
shifted to achieve certain artistic effects
such as bringing in a rhythm or melody in
the lines, achieving emphasis, heightening
connection between two words.

Syntax
For example,
We can simply say I cannot go out to
convey our incapacity to do something, but
Kavanaghs in his poem Beyond
Decoration prefer Go out I cannot
Syntax
Beyond Decoration
P J Kavanagh

Go out I cannot, nor can I stay in,
Becalmed mid carpet, breathless, on the road
To nowhere and the road has petered out

Figurative Language
Figurative language means something
other than the actual meaning of the words.
(Non literal meaning)
Figurative Language
Simile
A simile is an explicit similar comparison
between two different things. To show the
similarity explicitly, words such as like, than,
as, or compare are used.
For example, you are like a star in the sky
(laksana bintang di langit)
Figurative Language
A Red, Red Rose
By Robert Burns

Oh, my love is like a red, red rose
Thats newly sprung in June;
My love is like the melody
Thats sweetly played in tune.
Figurative Language
Metaphor
makes a hidden meaning between two
objects that are poles apart but have some
characteristics common between them.
For example, youre a cockroach. You is
not an animal but human, and we can use
this comparison to describe an association
of a cockroach with you. Cockroach is a
large brown insect that lives in where there
is dirt.
Figurative Language
Metaphor gives a life-like quality to the
characters of the poetry besides a ways of
thinking, offering the listeners or readers
fresh ways of examining ideas and viewing
the world.
Figurative Language
Hyperbole
an exaggeration or over statement, usually
deliberate and not meant to be taken literally
For example, she rushed out of the room in
floods of tears, when she was in Paris, she
spent ton of money, Kemarahanku sudah
menjadi-jadi hingga hampir-hampir
meledaak aku.
Figurative Language
As I Walked One Evening
W. H Auden

Ill love you, dear, Ill love you
Till China and Africa meet,
And the river jumps over the mountain
And the salmon sing in the street,
Ill love you till the ocean
Is folded and hung up dry
Figurative Language
Litotes / understatement
Understatement in which the speaker uses a
negative expression where a positive one
would have been more forceful and direct.
Untuk menyatakan sesuatu dengan tujuan
merendahkan diri.
Hes no Hercules
Kedudukan saya ini tidak ada artinya sama
sekali

Figurative Language
Personification
the assigning of human characteristics to
non humans.
The moon smiles at us.
The trees are waving to the tiger.
The wind touched my skin.
Figurative Language
Have You Got a Brook In Your Little Heart
Emily Elizabeth

Have you got a brook in your little heart
Where bashful flowers blow
And blushing birds go down to drink,
And shadows tremble so?
Figurative Language
Metonymy / metonimia
a word which is used for something related
to that which it usually refers to (Halliday,
1985:319).
Metonimia suatu gaya bahasa yang
mempergunakan sebuah kata untuk
menyatakan suatu hal lain. (Gorys Keraf,
1981:142). Hubungan ini dapat berupa
penemu dengan hasil penemuan, pemilik
dan barang kepunyaan, dll.
Figurative Language
Kretek for rokok kreterk, blok M for pasar
blok M, baju hijau for tentara, baret merah
for kopasus,
Figurative Language
For example, screptre and crown for rulers,
scythe and spade for commoners
Figurative Language
Paradox
a picture of contradiction will be a thing (as
distinct from reality, with real meaning.) As
Perrine said in his literature, structure,
sounds and sense that the paradox is an
apparent contradiction that is nevertheless
somehow true (1987-604).
Figurative Language
Paradox
A term for a situation or statement that is or
seems self-contradictory and even absurd,
but may contain an insight into life
(McArthur, 1996:348)

Mengandung pertentangan yang nyata
dengan fakta-fakta yang ada (Gorys Keraf,
1981:136)
Figurative Language
Paradox
Child is father of the man (William
Wordsworths My Heart Leaps up When I
Behold,)
Musuh sering merupakan kawan yang akrab
Ia mati kelaparan di tengah-tengah
kekayaannya yang berlimpahh-limpah
Figurative Language
Irony
refers to words with an implication
opposite to their usual meaning. Ironic
comment may be humorous or mildly
sarcastic.
Well, thats a lot better, isnt it?
you are very slim
Mulutmu harimau mu
Figurative Language
The Rime of the Ancient Mariner
Coleridge

Water, water, everywhere,
And all the boards did shrink;
Water, water, everywhere,
Nor any water to drink
Figurative Language
Antithesis
a construction in which words are opposed
but balanced in opposition (McArthur,
1996:72).
Mengandung gagasan-gagasan yang
bertentangan dengan mempergunakan kata-
kata atau kelompok kata yang berlawanan.
(Gorys Keraf, 1881:126)
Figurative Language
Antithesis
God and beast.
To err is human; to forgive, divine.
Better to reign in Hell, than serve in Heaven
Kaya-miskin, tua-muda, besar-kecil,
semuanya mempunyai kewajiban terhadap
keamanan bangsa dan negara.
Exercise
Find a poem! Analyze its syntax and
figurative language!