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FTTx Market Overview

What is FTTx?
Covers a wide variety of cabling/data applications:
FTTH Home Fiber
FTTB Business (also called FTTE or FTTP)
FTTC Provisioning to the curb (hybrid
fiber/copper networking)
Fiber to the Home Fiber to the Curb Fiber to the Business
Why Residential FTTx?
Bandwidth capabilities:
Support for Broadcast quality or HD quality TV (IPTV) and
high speed data access
Provisioning of VoIP services
Distance support:
MMF can be up to 2Kms, SMF can be up to 120Kms
(typical SMF FTTx is normally max 20Km)
Triple play:
One provider, one invoice for three services

Bandwidth Requirements
Delivering FTTH services requires bandwidth:
Acceptable high speed Internet 8 to 10Mbps
Video over IP (broadcast quality MPEG2) 3Mbps (required per
set-top box)
Video over IP (HD-TV MPEG2) 12Mbps (required per set-top
Video over IP (HD-TV MPEG4) 6 to 8Mbps (required per set-
top box)
VoIP 128Kbps (QoS is more important)

Why Business FTTx?
Bandwidth Capabilities: Offer 10, 100 or 1,000Mbps
Provide QoS at the edge: Traffic grooming via layer 2
(VLAN), or layer 3 (TCP/UDP) services, prioritization
Upgrades: As bandwidth demand increases, open up
the pipe
Management: proactively manage the network
FTTx - Point to Point
Typically an Ethernet deployment:
Point to point
Fiber runs are specific:
Fiber links end point (CPE), directly to CO
Run lengths:
MDU/FTTH = approx 300m to 600m
Estate/FTTH = approx 2Km to 15Km
FTTB = approx 2Km to 20Km
Cable types:
MDU/FTTH, typically 50 micron MMF
Others, typically SMF
Types of Fiber
Multi-mode Fiber (MM)
Typically 50 or 62.5 micron core
Will work with low cost optics (LED)
High loss, low bandwidth, short distance
Relatively easy installation
Single-mode Fiber (SM)
Typically 9 micron core
Single strand of silica core
Works with LASER based optics
Low loss, high-bandwidth
Higher skilled installers needed
Types of Fiber (cont.):
Single-Strand Fiber*
Normally, IT equipment uses TWO strands one to receive light, the
other to send
Now, advances in optics allow users to send/receive using only ONE
Why do this?
Double the data capacity of cable
Mix protocols over the existing fiber plant: e.g. Ethernet over one
strand, DS3/E3 over the other
Single-Strand versions are now available for most of IMC Networks
* Now standardized by the IEEE as 100Base-BX (BiDi)
Single-Strand Fiber (cont.)
How does it work?
Light is transmitted at TWO different wavelengths (think Wave
Division Multiplexing, or think TWO different colors)
In one direction light @ 1310nm is used, in the return direction
light @ 1550nm is used
Point to Point
Access Method is normally Ethernet - Why?
Ubiquitous technology
Low cost
Fully understood
Traffic grooming/QoS available
IEEE 802.3ah Ethernet in the First Mile, creating
new cabling and OAM standards
Ethernet Point to Point
For the installer:
Since its Ethernet, you already understand it
For the operator:
Lower capex, Ethernet is available from many vendors
For the user:
High bandwidth (10Mbps, or 100Mbps), allows
multiple services

Ethernet in FTTx
Ethernet was never designed for FTTx applications
Bandwidth control is not reliable (CIR, EIR*)
Physical layer management and fault detection is poor only
standard is the Link Integrity Test
More fault diagnostic features can be added via SNMP e.g.
packet monitoring, loopback
Only issue: you need physical layer connectivity for
SNMP to operate
Telco customers expect more from the physical layer
*CIR = Committed Information Rate, EIR = Excess Information Rate
IEEE EFM physical standard:
802.3ah Ethernet road map
Copper based standard, designed to offer a quick fix to
EFM, FTTC application (e.g. Belgacom Broadway)
100Mbps over maximum of 10Km SMF
BiDi (Single strand), WDM utilizing 1550 and 1310 nm
(1550 always the core lambda)

* Power budgets and attenuation requirements also defined
Also offers OAM (Operations, Administration and Maintenance)
Ethernets weakness not connection based, therefore, whats happening at
the other end of the cable?
Provisioning of statistics, Link status etc.
802.3ah - OAM
OAM (Operations, Administration, Maintenance):
A peer to peer management system offering link
management. Both devices on the link must support
OAM to work.
Management data exchanged via OAMPDUs (Protocol
Data Units), OAMPDUs carried by standard Ethernet
Link management via
802.3ah OAMPDUs
802.3ah - OAM
OAMPDUs do not travel from the CO device (MAC to
MAC), therefore, the CO needs an SNMP agent with OAM
OAMPDUs a slow protocol with a unique EtherType
OAM stack: can be
implemented in hardware or
802.3ah - OAM
Dest Address: multicast
EtherType 8809: slow protocol
Subtype 3: 802.3ah traffic

Dest Address/EtherType ensure that OAM traffic is not propagate
further than the MAC layer i.e. OAM traffic stays within the link
Slow protocol = +/- 10 frames per second (other example: link
aggregation control protocol (LACP) )

802.3ah - OAM
OAMPDU: Within the OAMPDU data is represented via type-
length-value (TLV) format.
802.3ah - OAM
Discovery (initial stage). Identify if the other device is
OAM compliant also establish if certain functionality is
available (e.g. loopback)

Remote loopback. Enable/disable remote loopback.
Note: loopback is dumb, however loopback traffic
stays within the link

802.3ah - OAM
Functionality (cont..):
Remote Failure.
Link Fault: This flag is raised when a station stops
receiving a transmit signal from its peer.
Dying Gasp: This flag is raised when a station is
about to reset, reboot, or otherwise go to an
operationally down state.
Critical Event: This flag indicates a severe error
condition that does not result in a complete re-set or
re-boot by the peer entity.
802.3ah - OAM
Functionality (cont..):
Event Conditions. OAM also defines a set of standard
event conditions that Ethernet links should monitor in
normal operation, and if detected, should be signaled to a
peer entity:
Errored Symbol Period Event e.g. 1,000 symbols out of
1,000,000 had errors
Errored Frame Period Event e.g. 10 frames out of 1000
had errors
Errored Frame Event e.g. 10 frames in 1 second had

802.3ah - OAM
Functionality (cont..):
Vendor specific TLVs can be developed:
Fiber power measurement
Enhanced error monitoring e.g. oversized frames,
congestion, link flap
However, vendor specific means both ends of the link
need to be from the same vendor.

802.3ah - OAM
Whats missing? Quite a lot:
802.3ah OAM is designed to provide enhanced link
802.3ah OAM is NOT designed to act as a configuration
protocol e.g. enable/disable features, configure specific
functionality etc..
If youre using active CPEs that supports VLAN
tagging, 802.3ah is no use whatsoever in configuring the
VLAN tagging, prioritization, rate limiting etc.. you still
need to use SNMP

OAM - conclusions
OAM is needed Ethernet is perceived as being weak
with link fault monitoring
OAM also defines a standard loopback and also last
gasp functions
OAM does NOT replace SNMP if youre using
intelligent CPE devices
Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF)
Industry body developing Metro Ethernet Standards:
802.1ag: Connectivity Fault Management
An enhanced OAM standard (compatible with
802.3ah), to manage an entire end to end link
MEF standards currently under development:
Resilient Rings
Service Provisioning models
MPLS/Ethernet connectivity

Point to Multipoint (PONs)
Passive Optical Networking* (PONs)
New development when compared to Ethernet
Represents point to multipoint architecture
Based on active and passive equipment
Cell or ATM like behavior, with an element of TDM
Offers link management (OAM functionality)
* Driving force is ITU/FSAN
A PON is constructed using active equipment and passive equipment:

OLT - Optical Line Terminator (active)
Splitter(s) - Up to 32 fibers out (passive)
ONT - Optical Network Terminals (active)
PONs architecture:
Source: Corning
How does data travel on a PON?
PONs are shared media:
Downstream data is broadcast from the CO, each
CPE will recognize its own data
Upstream data is via TDM
Up to three lambdas are normally used:
1550nm downstream data
1310nm upstream data
1470nm for CATV overlay
PONs Installer perspective
PONs = multiple hubs and spokes
Much more thought is required for the cabling layout:
Placement of splitters is critical
Often its vendor specific, installation normally
will be single source (not good)
Only operates on SMF
Once the PON is in place, what protocol will you use?

Splitter suggestions from one vendor
Source: Corning
The bandwidth is shared
A-PON/B-PON = 622Mbps
Divide the above between 32 customers = 19Mbps per
G-PONs/E-PONs = 1gig
Divide the above up between 32 customers = 32Mbps
How do you provide IPTV?
Simple, you cannot
Some examples - FTTH
Sweden- Vllingby-net
20,000 homes passed / 6,500 subscribers
(TUR = 33%)
Infrastructure owed by the housing
association (Svenska Bostder 55k
apartments in Greater Stockholm)
Infrastructure management/ provisioning
by Telia
Data/IPTV connectivity provided by 8
different ISPs
Local peering agreement
70% of all traffic handled by peering
Some examples - FTTB
City of Ried (Austria)
Networks owned by Energie Ried, managed
by Infotech (ISP)
Enegrie Ried provides right of way,
Infotech the active equipment
Currently 75Km of core fiber (main rings are
48 pair)
Providing 100Mbps connectivity for the city
and its institutions (town hall, police, fire
Offering FTTB access (currently, 300
Planning on FTTH upgrade to offer data,
voice and video in 2005
Utfors (Telenor), Sweden
Provisioning FTTB services:
2Mbps (PRI-ISN)
10Mbps, 100Mbps & 1,000Mbps
IMC Equipment in use:
iMediaCenter/18x (DC) POP
Upgrading currently to AEL/4
Approx 1,500 customers served by IMC
Also using FiberWay on optical backhaul for
BT Exact, Sweden
Competitive pan-Nordic telecoms
Offering FTTB services over the
whole of Sweden
Direct competitor to Utfors/Telenor
Provisioning via:
iMediaCenter/18x (POP)
Plans to upgrade CPE links to
Gigabit Ethernet in 2006

Brutl, Belgium

CATV, Competitive fiber carrier in the Brussels region
FTTB offering is Brutlcom@profibre
LAN extension services (ELine), managed shared access
System built around FiberLinX-II-II and Access
Core switching provided by Cisco
YTD: Approx $120k of kit
Vodatel, Croatia
Croatian telco operator, currently deploying FTTB in
Zagreb (Croatian market liberalized in 2005)
Currently, 350+ business customers
Core switches from Nortel
Business CPE = AEL/4

Several other competitors to Vodatel are also starting
to buy the AEL/4
Other Users
Time Warner Inc. Delivering business fiber services
using IMCs FiberLinX-II-II CPE
Atrica. OEM customer for 100Mbps and Gigabit
versions of FiberLinX-II-II
Currently tendering to supply FTTC solution for British
Teledis (Belgium), Lattelekom (Baltic's), Chilean PTT,
ntl: (UK), Slovenian Telecoms, T-Online, CzechCom
Core Product Focus:
FTTx Fiber To The x
Fastest growing subset of the Media Conversion market
Two types:
Fiber to the neighborhood, curb or business
Fiber to the premises or home (FTTP/FTTH)
Incumbent local exchange carriers
Competitive or emerging carriers
Municipalities, utilities, real estate developers and other
CATV operators
FTTx Access Products: Intelligent Solutions for
the Networks Edge
Point to Point Optical Ethernet Connection
Provision high-speed Internet, Ethernet
Private Line and Transparent LAN services
SNMP Managed

Access EtherLinX
Layer-2, VLAN based secure Multi-user
Optical Access Edge Device
Performs a conversion from fiber to twisted
pair LAN
Rate limiting/bandwidth feature on all ports
enables service providers to offer Ethernet
Private Line and Transparent LAN services

Modular device provides single conversion from
100Base-FX to 10/100Base-TX
Or, Gigabit conversion 10/100/1000 Copper to
1Gbps fiber
Embedded SNMP agent
Installs into a dumb chassis*
Optional SNMP port or VLAN tag the
SNMP traffic
Can operate as:
A pair CO <=> CPE
Standalone demarcation device
Or via UMA*
Rate limiting available, respects VLAN tags,
writes extra tag (Q in Q)
Two priority queues
Can also work in transparent mode
* Managed CO chassis needed for UMA (see later)
Double-wide module used to connect two remote
networks over fiber optics
Can operate as a pair CO <=> CPE
Designed for Managed Optical Ethernet applications
Both end-points and the link can be viewed as a
single management entity (UMA)
Supports 4,094 VLAN tags (802.1Q), stacked
VLANs and two priority queues
Rate limiting available
Supports transparent mode (auto-negotiation)
Provides single conversion from 10/100/1000 Copper to
1Gbps fiber
Offers choice of fiber or SFP uplink/downlink ports
DB-9 serial port for local management
FiberLinX-II-II Application
Smallest fiber optic demarcation device on
the market.
All functionality of the modular FiberLinX-
II-II (SNMP, VLAN, QoS, rate limiting
100Mbps fiber to 10/100 copper
Enables service providers to deliver high-
speed Internet, Ethernet Private Line and
Transparent LAN services over fiber to
customer premises.
Also acts as copper to fiber media converter
Allows lower-cost copper-port switches
to connect to the fiber network
IE-MiniFiberLinX-II-II (cont.)
Industrial Ethernet means:
Extended power options
802.3af PD
5VDC (external power brick)
External 5VDC to 60VDC
DIN rail mountable
Supports operating temps of -45C to +70C
Robust management
Operators can monitor the entire link
between two locations.
Management traffic and customer data are
QoS Support
IEEE 802.1p-based packet prioritization
IE-MiniFiberLinX-II-II Application
Solar panels power remote 802.3af-compliant (PSE) Access Point (AP)
AP sends power and data over Ethernet to IE-MiniFiberLinX-II-II
IE-MiniFIberLinX-II-II delivers data over fiber to Central Office
Universal Management Agent
The Unified Management Agent (UMA) allows operators
to use a single IP address to centrally manage FiberLinX-
II-II modules installed in an iMediaChassis chassis.
Leverages FiberLinX-II-IIs on-board intelligence
Also allows management of remote FiberLinX-II-II
modules connected to the modules in the chassis
Allows central management and firmware upgrades over
multiple devices.
Access EtherLinX-II-II/4
Five port device 1x fiber, 4x 10/100
Offer rate limiting/bandwidth on all ports
Write/read L2 VLAN tags on downlinks
(perfect for traffic classification)
Data can be switched within the
device via tagging
Supports up to 4096 individual VLAN
ID tags per downlink
Write 802.1p bit on downlink traffic, two
priority queues internal in the device,
passes p-tag
For FTTE (enterprise access) and private
MAN networks
Access EtherLinX-II-II
Application Diagram
Chassis CO Solutions
Chassis Overview
iMediaChassis 20 slot
i means intelligent i.e. managed
20-slots for Modules, 1-slot for SNMP (daughter board)
All boards are hot swappable
Settings are preserved when SNMP module is exchanged
Supports SNMPv1 or SNMPv2c, and telnet capabilities
Bigger 280W power supply units (2 Amp per slot delivery)
Monitor fan speed and dual temperature zone
User replaceable fans
Last gasp alarm
Operational temperature up to 50C
iMediaChassis 6 slot
6-Slot Managed Chassis
Offering dual PSU (mix & match AC & DC power supplies in same
Support for six modules and SNMP board
Targeted users:
More demanding environments
Telco grade solutions (NEBS-III pending)
Compatible with ALL existing iMcV modules
MediaChassis/1 and /2
Unmanaged chassis
Mix and match iMcV slide-in converter modules
Internal AC or DC power options
Wall mount and rack mount options
Single slot chassis for IE-iMcV
Offers many of the same features as
DIN rail mounting
Extended temperature: -40C to
+70C depending on module
Multiple power options
AC Adapter with 5VDC
output (included)
5 to 20V DC jack
7 - 50V DC terminal block
iMcV Managed Modules
A Wide Range of
Available Modules
Multiple Conversion and Mode Types Include:
T1/E1/J1 to Ethernet Conversion
DS3/E3 to Ethernet Conversion
Gigabit Conversion
Optical repeaters
And More
100Mbps layer one or layer two converters
100Mbps single-strand fiber
10/100 auto negotiating converter module
10Mbps copper to fiber
Single-mode to multi-mode converters
Single-mode (up to 40Km), and multi-mode fiber support
Gigabit copper to fiber (incl. SSF)
FTTx set for rapid growth over the next six years
Providing a high speed pipe is only the beginning:
Residential: Video over IP (broadcast/VoD), VoIP
Business: Traffic management, QoS issues
Intelligent CPEs offering full management functionality
plus service levels are the only way forward
Cost is always critical, Ethernet is by far and away the
most inexpensive delivery method